Presentation on theme: "Bell Work List 4 reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire"— Presentation transcript:
1Bell Work List 4 reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire Who tried to save the Roman Empire by dividing it?Who moved the capital to the east?Where was the Eastern Roman Empire located (old name of the city & new name of the city)?
6GeographyThe Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium; later renamed Constantinople located on:the Bosporus Strait connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.Europe & Asia meet at the Bosporus Strait.AsiaEurope6
7Why the East? Constantinople on: seaport Important point for trade major trade routes b/w Asia & EuropeGateways b/w Black Sea & Aegean SeaControl gateways = control shipping
8Byzantine Empire vs Rome? Both a Greek & Christian stateGreek replaced Latin as official languageChristian church now Eastern Orthodox Church (EOC)Byzantine emperor controlled church & stateEmperor appointed the head of the church
9Life in Constantinople Largest city in Europe in the Middle AgesEurope’s greatest center of Commerceindustry grewsilkworms were smuggled from China to begin a silk industryBuilding increasedGlorify Constantinople
11QuestionsWhat is the name of the new empire that came out of Rome on the east side of the Mediterranean?What was the name of the capital city of this new empire?What was so good about the placement of the capital city?What was the official language and religion?
13Reign of JustinianByzantine emperors believed: rightful rulers of all the lands Rome once heldJustinian tried to reconquer the western lands, then became emperor
14Reconquering Roman Lands Why?Regain Rome’s gloryJustinian ruled as an autocrat .Ruler who has complete authorityCreated a huge Christian empireEmpire reached its greatest sizeDid he succeed?Yes, at firstRuled almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruledAfter his death the lands were taken back1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks
15Simplifying the lawsJustinian ordered group of scholars to organize the lawsFrom the last 400 yearsLaws contradicted each other, so cleaned them upCode of JustinianDecided legal questions in all areasMarriage, property, justice, etc.Did he succeed?YesCode of Justinian: basis of law in the Byzantine empire until its end (900 years)
16Justinian’s Code of Laws Laws were fairer to women.They could own propertyraise their own children after their husbands died.Children allowed to choose their own marriage partners.Slavery was legal and slaves must obey their masters.Punishments were detailed and fit the crimeHis work inspired the modern concept and, indeed, the very spelling of "justice".
17Building Program: Glorifying Constantinople Larger building program than any other EmperorWalls for protectionMarketplace for tradeCourts, schools, hospitalsHagia SophiaCrowning glory of Justinian’s reignchurch of Holy WisdomHippodrome – like Rome’s Coliseum for main eventswhere gladiator fights & chariot races were heldDid he succeed?
20Preservation of Greco-Roman Culture Modern world owes Byzantines a huge debt!Preserved Greek & Roman cultureHOW?Valued education – Classical LearningGreek and RomanGrammarLiteraturePhilosophyStudied HomerGeometry from EuclidHistory from HerodotusMedicine from Galen
21QuestionsWhat were Justinian’s 3 major goal during his reign as emperor?What Byzantine emperor tried to re-conquer the lands that were lost to the west?Name 2 buildings in Constantinople and their purpose?Who took over Constantinople after Justinian’s rule?What type of rule did Justinian have and what does it mean?Write down 2 things from the Code of Laws that changed.
23Bell WorkAugustus, the first emperor of Rome, created a system of government that existed for centuries. How did the government of the eastern empire compare with that of the western empire?One of Rome’s lasting contributions was its law. How does the Justinian Code compare with the principles of Roman law?In ancient Rome, the Colosseum wa the site of free games, races, and gladiator contests for the masses. What kinds of free entertainment did the Hippodrome offer to citizens of Constantinople?
24ObjectivesExamine the reasons for the split of the Catholic Church within the Byzantine Empire.Compare the decline of Roman Empire to the decline of the Byzantium Empire
25The Great Schism What is it? East West separation between two great branches of ChristianityEastEastern Orthodox ChurchWestRoman Catholic
26The Church Divides The Western & Eastern Empires develop differently Due to lack of contactDifferences grewEast was more oriented towards Asia and Northeastern EuropeDifferencesLanguageMarriage of priestsLeaderIcons
27Differences Language Marriage East – Greek West – Latin East – allowed priests to marryWest – not allowed
28Differences - Leader East: Constantinople church was headed by the Patriarchspiritual leadercontrolled by the EmperorWest: Romechurch was headed by the PopeSpiritual leaderhad control over the rulers of Western Europe.Pope in Rome thought he was above any ruler, Pope in Constantinople thought that rulers had power
29Differences - Icons Conflict over icons Icons – small art objects that depict a holy figureIconoclasts – People who were against the use of icons in worship, should just pray to God
30End Result: The SplitSeveral Byzantine Emperors attempted to ban the use of iconsThe pope in the west supported the use of iconsIn 1054 both Popes excommunicated each otherExcommunicated – declared outside the churchTwo branches formRoman Catholic Church - WestEastern Orthodox Church - East
31Decline of the Byzantine Empire Loss of landTurkish troops seized most of the Asian provinces of the Empire.Creation of independent Slavic kingdoms in the Balkans (like Serbia)showed the Empire’s diminished power.Loss of Powerincreased impact of Italian trading cities with the ports of Constantinople.AttackedCrusade to take back Holy Land actually turned against Constantinople!Weakened the Byzantine Empire more!
32The End of the Byzantine Empire 1453: The Byzantine empire drew to a closeforces from the Muslim Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople.The ancient Christian city was renamed Istanbulbecame the capital of the Ottoman Empire.