Presentation on theme: "Bell Work List 4 reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire Who tried to save the Roman Empire by dividing it? Who moved the capital to the east? Where."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Work List 4 reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire Who tried to save the Roman Empire by dividing it? Who moved the capital to the east? Where was the Eastern Roman Empire located (old name of the city & new name of the city)?
The Byzantine Empire: The New Rome
Objectives Describe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s location Compare the Byzantine Empire the Roman Empire Describe the role of Justinian in the rise of the Byzantine Empire
Setting the stage The Western Roman Empire crumbled For 1000 yrs after the collapse of the W the E would carry on the glory of Rome The E would remain and become: The Byzantine Empire
Geography The Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium; later renamed Constantinople located on: –the Bosporus Strait connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Europe & Asia meet at the Bosporus Strait. Europe Asia 6
Why the East? Constantinople on: seaport Important point for trade major trade routes b/w Asia & Europe major trade routes b/w Asia & Europe Gateways b/w Black Sea & Aegean Sea Control gateways = control shipping Control gateways = control shipping
Byzantine Empire vs Rome? Both a Greek & Christian state –Greek replaced Latin as official language –Christian church now Eastern Orthodox Church (EOC) Byzantine emperor controlled church & state –Emperor appointed the head of the church
Life in Constantinople Largest city in Europe in the Middle Ages Europe’s greatest center of Commerce industry grew –silkworms were smuggled from China to begin a silk industry Building increased –Glorify Constantinople
Questions What is the name of the new empire that came out of Rome on the east side of the Mediterranean? What was the name of the capital city of this new empire? What was so good about the placement of the capital city? What was the official language and religion?
Reign of Justinian Byzantine emperors believed: rightful rulers of all the lands Rome once held Justinian tried to reconquer the western lands, then became emperor
Reconquering Roman Lands Why? –Regain Rome’s glory –Justinian ruled as an autocrat. Ruler who has complete authority Created a huge Christian empire Empire reached its greatest size Did he succeed? –Yes, at first Ruled almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruled –After his death the lands were taken back 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks
Simplifying the laws Justinian ordered group of scholars to organize the laws –From the last 400 years –Laws contradicted each other, so cleaned them up Code of Justinian –Decided legal questions in all areas Marriage, property, justice, etc. Did he succeed? –Yes Code of Justinian: basis of law in the Byzantine empire until its end (900 years)
Justinian’s Code of Laws Laws were fairer to women. –They could own property –raise their own children after their husbands died. Children allowed to choose their own marriage partners. Slavery was legal and slaves must obey their masters. Punishments were detailed and fit the crime His work inspired the modern concept and, indeed, the very spelling of "justice".
Building Program: Glorifying Constantinople Larger building program than any other Emperor –Walls for protection –Marketplace for trade –Courts, schools, hospitals Hagia Sophia –Crowning glory of Justinian’s reign church of Holy Wisdom Hippodrome – like Rome’s Coliseum for main events –where gladiator fights & chariot races were held Did he succeed?
Preservation of Greco-Roman Culture Modern world owes Byzantines a huge debt! –Preserved Greek & Roman culture HOW? –Valued education – Classical Learning Greek and Roman –Grammar –Literature –Philosophy Studied Homer Geometry from Euclid History from Herodotus Medicine from Galen
Questions What were Justinian’s 3 major goal during his reign as emperor? What Byzantine emperor tried to re-conquer the lands that were lost to the west? Name 2 buildings in Constantinople and their purpose? Who took over Constantinople after Justinian’s rule? What type of rule did Justinian have and what does it mean? Write down 2 things from the Code of Laws that changed.
To Do Worksheet: Analyzing Emperor Justinian
Bell Work Augustus, the first emperor of Rome, created a system of government that existed for centuries. How did the government of the eastern empire compare with that of the western empire? One of Rome’s lasting contributions was its law. How does the Justinian Code compare with the principles of Roman law? In ancient Rome, the Colosseum wa the site of free games, races, and gladiator contests for the masses. What kinds of free entertainment did the Hippodrome offer to citizens of Constantinople?
Objectives Examine the reasons for the split of the Catholic Church within the Byzantine Empire. Compare the decline of Roman Empire to the decline of the Byzantium Empire
The Great Schism What is it? –separation between two great branches of Christianity East –Eastern Orthodox Church West –Roman Catholic
The Church Divides The Western & Eastern Empires develop differently –Due to lack of contact –Differences grew East was more oriented towards Asia and Northeastern EuropeEast was more oriented towards Asia and Northeastern Europe Differences –Language –Marriage of priests –Leader –Icons
Differences Language –East – Greek –West – Latin Marriage –East – allowed priests to marry –West – not allowed
Differences - Leader East: Constantinople church was headed by the Patriarchchurch was headed by the Patriarch spiritual leaderspiritual leader controlled by the Emperorcontrolled by the Emperor West: Rome church was headed by the Popechurch was headed by the Pope Spiritual leaderSpiritual leader had control over the rulers of Western Europe.had control over the rulers of Western Europe. Pope in Rome thought he was above any ruler, Pope in Constantinople thought that rulers had power
Differences - Icons Conflict over icons –Icons – small art objects that depict a holy figure –Iconoclasts – People who were against the use of icons in worship, should just pray to God
End Result: The Split Several Byzantine Emperors attempted to ban the use of icons –The pope in the west supported the use of icons In 1054 both Popes excommunicated each other –Excommunicated – declared outside the church –Two branches form Roman Catholic Church - West Eastern Orthodox Church - East
Decline of the Byzantine Empire Loss of landLoss of land –Turkish troops seized most of the Asian provinces of the Empire. –Creation of independent Slavic kingdoms in the Balkans (like Serbia) showed the Empire’s diminished power.showed the Empire’s diminished power. Loss of PowerLoss of Power –increased impact of Italian trading cities with the ports of Constantinople. AttackedAttacked –Crusade to take back Holy Land actually turned against Constantinople! –Weakened the Byzantine Empire more!
The End of the Byzantine Empire 1453: The Byzantine empire drew to a close –forces from the Muslim Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople. The ancient Christian city was renamed Istanbul –became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.