4 ObjectivesDescribe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s locationDescribe the role of Justinian in the rise of the Byzantine EmpireCompare the decline of Roman Empire to the decline of the Byzantium EmpireExamine the reasons for the split of the Catholic Church within the Byzantine Empire.
5 Setting the stage The Western Roman Empire crumbled For 1000 years after the collapse of the west the east would carry on the glory of RomeThe east would remain and become:The Byzantine Empire
9 ObjectivesDescribe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s locationDescribe the role of Justinian in the rise of the Byzantine EmpireCompare the decline of Roman Empire to the decline of the Byzantium EmpireExamine the reasons for the split of the Catholic Church within the Byzantine Empire.
10 Why the East? Geography Better for defense Good location for trade Bosporus StraitMajor trade routes b/w Asia & Europe meetControl these gateways= control the shippingAsiaEurope
12 Reign of Justinian 3 goals of Justinian Re-conquer Roman lands Simplify the lawsGlorify Constantinople
13 Reconquering Roman Lands Wanted to regain Rome’s gloryCreated huge Christian empireRuled almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruledAfter his death the lands were taken back
14 Simplifying the laws Justinian: group of scholars to organize the laws If laws contradicted each other, which do we follow?“Code of Justinian”Decided legal questions in all areasMarriage, property, justice, etc.basis of law in the Eastern Roman empire for 900 years
15 Building Program: Glorifying Constantinople Larger building program than any other EmperorWalls for protectionMarketplace for tradeCourts, schools, hospitals
16 Hagia SophiaCrowning glory of Justinian’s reign
22 Legacy of the Byzantine Empire Modern world owes the Byzantines a huge debt?They preserved Greek and Roman cultureGreco-Roman cultureHOW?Valued education & Classical LearningGreek and RomanGrammarLiteraturePhilosophyStudied HomerGeometry from EuclidHistory from HerodotusMedicine from Galen
23 The End of the Byzantine Empire Plague strikes the empire1453: Byzantine empire drew to a closeMuslim Ottoman Empire forces, conquered Constantinople.
24 The Great Schism What is it? East West separation b/w 2 great branches of ChristianityEastEastern Orthodox ChurchWestRoman Catholic
25 The Church Divides The Western & Eastern Empires develop differently Due to lack of contactDifferences grewEast was more oriented towards Asia and Northeastern EuropeDifferencesLanguageMarriage of priestsLeaderIcons
26 Differences Language Marriage East – Greek West – Latin East – allowed priests to marryWest – not allowed
27 Differences - Leader East: Constantinople West: Rome church was headed by the Patriarchspiritual leaderPatriarch was an equal to the political leadersWest: Romechurch was headed by the PopeSpiritual leadercontrol over the political leadersCompare and contrast the leaders in 1-2 sentences:Both are leaders of their church. Pope in Rome also had control over the political leaders.
28 Differences - Icons East West Icons – small art objects that depict a holy figureEastWestfelt that these icons represented the sacredimportant part of their worship.Opponents to icons felt that they violated the ten commandmentsIn A.D. 726 Emperor Leo III ordered that all icons be destroyed.
29 End Result: The Split A.D. 1054 the division of the church the two churches were functioning as separate organizations.A conflict about the ICONS was the last straw.The Pope and leaders in the East excommunicated each otherBoth churches claimed to have the authority of God behind themThe church in the West became the Holy Roman Catholic ChurchThe East became the Eastern Orthodox Church.
35 ObjectivesList and evaluate the causes and consequences of the CrusadesPapal power, connections between east and west
36 What were they? What are the Crusades? Pope Urban II Holy WarPope Urban IIresponded to the request of Alexius I to take back the holy land from the Muslimscalled for crusades against infidelsInfidels were the non believers = Muslims, JewsGoal:To regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims
37 Pope’s Goal Reunite the Byzantine & Roman Christians Wanted to be the head of all ChristiansReclaim Palestine (Holy Land)leader of all of Christendom
38 Knight’s Goal forgiveness of sins Win glory in battle HeroadventurePosition in societylandriches
39 Merchant’s Goal Wanted to control trade routes b/w Asia & Europe Make money off the crusadersLoans to fund crusadesCharge for travel & suplies
42 The 1st Crusade Crusaders were well prepared for war Unprepared for what?the desert (to Jerusalem)For 2 years they suffered, but they were luckyMuslims were fighting among themselvesOutcomeFinally captured JerusalemSlaughtered the Muslims1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to another Crusade
43 The 2nd Crusade 2nd Crusade was a total failure 1187, Jerusalem fell to SaladinSultan of Egypt & Syria3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third Crusade
44 The 3rd Crusade Called: The Kings’ Crusade Outcome (3 kings at the start)French King Philip AugustusCaught a fever and went homeGerman Emperor Fredrick I (Barbarossa)Fell from his horse in a river and drownedEnglish King Richard (the Lionheart)Only one that continuedFound Saladin, Muslim ruler, to be chivalrousOutcomeAgreed to a 3 year truceRichard I negotiated a settlement with SaladinMuslims controlled Jerusalem, but Christians could visit
45 The 6th Crusade Most successful of the later crusades Fredrick II met with Saladin’s nephewNegotiated a treatyThe pope was not pleasedSaid it was a pact with the devilExcommunicated FredrickThe Holy Land fell to the Muslims
46 Effects of the Crusades Who sent all of the knights on the Crusades?What was the goal of the crusades?Were the Crusades successful?Who looks bad?What does this mean?Decline in Pope’s power
47 Effects of the Crusades What was the goal of the crusades?Who did the crusaders have to kill?Why did they kill the Muslims? For how long?What is this going to lead to?Increase in religious intolerance
48 Effects of the Crusades Where did the European crusaders travel to during the crusades?Who lived in this area?What would be different in this area than in Europe?What would happen then when these people went back to Europe?What does this mean?Increase in trade
49 Effects of the Crusades In the first crusades what town did all of the knights go through?We talked about the main contribution of this empire, what was it?What would be effect of thousands of people going through a city were everything is a copy of Rome?Revival of Greek and Roman ideas
50 To Do In Class: Homework: Test Tuesday Crusades Video Review for Review Day - MondayTest Tuesday