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The Byzantine Empire: The New Rome Objectives Describe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s location Describe the role of Justinian in the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire: The New Rome Objectives Describe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s location Describe the role of Justinian in the."— Presentation transcript:

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3 The Byzantine Empire: The New Rome

4 Objectives Describe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s location Describe the role of Justinian in the rise of the Byzantine Empire Compare the decline of Roman Empire to the decline of the Byzantium Empire Examine the reasons for the split of the Catholic Church within the Byzantine Empire.

5 Setting the stage The Western Roman Empire crumbled For 1000 years after the collapse of the west the east would carry on the glory of Rome The east would remain and become: The Byzantine Empire

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7 Byzantine Stations Explain Stations –Start 1 st station Tomorrow –Finish Stations –Go over Rome Test

8 Bell Work Station Quiz Get out station notes

9 Objectives Describe the geographic advantages of Constantinople’s location Describe the role of Justinian in the rise of the Byzantine Empire Compare the decline of Roman Empire to the decline of the Byzantium Empire Examine the reasons for the split of the Catholic Church within the Byzantine Empire.

10 Why the East? Geography Better for defense Better for defense Good location for trade Good location for trade 1.Bosporus Strait 2.Major trade routes b/w Asia & Europe meet 3.Control these gateways= control the shipping Europe Asia

11 Emperor Justinian

12 Reign of Justinian 3 goals of Justinian –Re-conquer Roman lands –Simplify the laws –Glorify Constantinople

13 Reconquering Roman Lands Wanted to regain Rome’s glory –Created huge Christian empire Ruled almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruled –After his death the lands were taken back

14 Simplifying the laws Justinian: group of scholars to organize the laws –If laws contradicted each other, which do we follow? “Code of Justinian” –Decided legal questions in all areas Marriage, property, justice, etc. basis of law in the Eastern Roman empire for 900 years

15 Building Program: Glorifying Constantinople Larger building program than any other Emperor –Walls for protection –Marketplace for trade –Courts, schools, hospitals

16 Hagia Sophia Crowning glory of Justinian’s reign

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20 Hippodrome Hippodrome – like Rome’s Coliseum for main events –w–where gladiator fights & chariot races were held

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22 Legacy of the Byzantine Empire Modern world owes the Byzantines a huge debt? –They preserved Greek and Roman culture Greco-Roman culture HOW? –Valued education & Classical Learning Greek and Roman –Grammar –Literature –Philosophy Studied Homer Geometry from Euclid History from Herodotus Medicine from Galen

23 The End of the Byzantine Empire Plague strikes the empire 1453: Byzantine empire drew to a close –Muslim Ottoman Empire forces, conquered Constantinople.

24 The Great Schism What is it? separation b/w 2 great branches of Christianity separation b/w 2 great branches of ChristianityEast Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern Orthodox ChurchWest Roman Catholic Roman Catholic

25 The Church Divides The Western & Eastern Empires develop differently Due to lack of contact Due to lack of contact Differences grew Differences grew East was more oriented towards Asia and Northeastern EuropeDifferences 1. Language 2. Marriage of priests 3. Leader 4. Icons

26 Differences Language East – Greek East – Greek West – Latin West – Latin Marriage Marriage East – allowed priests to marry East – allowed priests to marry West – not allowed West – not allowed

27 Differences - Leader East: Constantinople church was headed by the Patriarch spiritual leader Patriarch was an equal to the political leaders West: Rome church was headed by the Pope Spiritual leader control over the political leaders Compare and contrast the leaders in 1-2 sentences: Both are leaders of their church. Pope in Rome also had control over the political leaders.

28 Differences - Icons East felt that these icons represented the sacred important part of their worship. West Opponents to icons felt that they violated the ten commandments In A.D. 726 Emperor Leo III ordered that all icons be destroyed. Icons – small art objects that depict a holy figure

29 End Result: The Split A.D the division of the church the two churches were functioning as separate organizations. the two churches were functioning as separate organizations. A conflict about the ICONS was the last straw. A conflict about the ICONS was the last straw. The Pope and leaders in the East excommunicated each other Both churches claimed to have the authority of God behind them The church in the West became the Holy Roman Catholic Church The church in the West became the Holy Roman Catholic Church The East became the Eastern Orthodox Church. The East became the Eastern Orthodox Church.

30 To Do Reading: Secret History Answer questions Answer questions

31 Bell Work Secret History  Go over answers

32 To Do Video: Justinian  Ancient Rome Volume IV (start 27 minutes in) Justinian’s Head  Finish for Homework

33 Bell Work Read: Pope Urban’s speech –Answer the questions

34 The Crusades

35 Objectives List and evaluate the causes and consequences of the Crusades –Papal power, connections between east and west

36 What were they? What are the Crusades? –Holy War Pope Urban II –responded to the request of Alexius I to take back the holy land from the Muslims –called for crusades against infidels –Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews Goal: –To regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims

37 Pope’s Goal Reunite the Byzantine & Roman Christians –Wanted to be the head of all Christians –Reclaim Palestine (Holy Land) leader of all of Christendom

38 Knight’s Goal forgiveness of sins Win glory in battle –H–Hero –a–adventure Position in society –l–land –r–riches

39 Merchant’s Goal Wanted to control trade routes b/w Asia & Europe Make money off the crusaders –Loans to fund crusades –Charge for travel & suplies

40 To Do Crusades Reading –Fill out 5 W’s and How

41 Bell Work Pair Share Crusades worksheet

42 The 1 st Crusade Crusaders were well prepared for war –Unprepared for what? the desert (to Jerusalem) For 2 years they suffered, but they were lucky –Muslims were fighting among themselves Outcome –Finally captured Jerusalem –Slaughtered the Muslims 1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to another Crusade

43 The 2 nd Crusade 2 nd Crusade was a total failure 1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin –Sultan of Egypt & Syria 3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third Crusade

44 The 3 rd Crusade Called: The Kings’ Crusade (3 kings at the start) –French King Philip Augustus Caught a fever and went home –German Emperor Fredrick I (Barbarossa) Fell from his horse in a river and drowned –English King Richard (the Lionheart) Only one that continued Found Saladin, Muslim ruler, to be chivalrous Outcome –Agreed to a 3 year truce Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin Muslims controlled Jerusalem, but Christians could visit

45 The 6 th Crusade Most successful of the later crusades Fredrick II met with Saladin’s nephew –Negotiated a treaty The pope was not pleased –Said it was a pact with the devil –Excommunicated Fredrick The Holy Land fell to the Muslims

46 Effects of the Crusades Who sent all of the knights on the Crusades? What was the goal of the crusades? Were the Crusades successful? Who looks bad? What does this mean? Decline in Pope’s power

47 Effects of the Crusades What was the goal of the crusades? Who did the crusaders have to kill? Why did they kill the Muslims? For how long? What is this going to lead to? Increase in religious intolerance

48 Where did the European crusaders travel to during the crusades? Who lived in this area? What would be different in this area than in Europe? What would happen then when these people went back to Europe? What does this mean? Increase in trade

49 Effects of the Crusades In the first crusades what town did all of the knights go through? We talked about the main contribution of this empire, what was it? What would be effect of thousands of people going through a city were everything is a copy of Rome? Revival of Greek and Roman ideas

50 To Do In Class: –Crusades Video Homework: –Review for Review Day - Monday Test Tuesday


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