2 Section 1: The Byzantine Empire Main Idea: After Rome split, the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) flourished for a millennium!Why It Matters Now: Byzantine culture deeply influenced Orthodox Christianity, and major branch of modern Christianity.Terms/ Names: Justinian, Justinian Code, Hagia Sophia, Patriarch, Icon, Excommunication, and Cyrillic alphabet
3 Don’t forget what happened in the past… The once great Roman Empire became weak, and was divided into two sections: West (Rome) and East (Constantinople)The Western Roman Empire crumbled in the 5th Century b/c of invading Germanic tribes.The Eastern Roman Empire (AKA Byzantium) would remain a dominate force in Asia for hundreds of years after Rome “falls”.
5 A new romeJustinian, a high ranking Byzantine nobleman, succeeded his uncle as the new ruler of the Eastern Empire (527).He sent his best general (Belisarius) to reclaim N. Africa; his goal is to revive Rome’s glory days.
6 Within 16 years, Belisarius had reclaimed nearly all of the territory of the old Roman empire:Justinian is now the new Caesar, and ruled withabsolute power.Byzantine emperors ruled both Church and Statew/ absolute power. Many emperors died violentdeaths
7 Life in new Rome Greek (not Latin) was spoken in New Rome Justinian est. a new code of laws for his empire:
8 Justinian Code:The Code- 5,000 old Roman laws—still usefulThe Digest- A collection of Rome’s greatest legal scholars; opinions about laws (50 volumes total)The Institutes- Textbook for law studentsThe Novellae (New Laws)- Legislation passed afterJustinian Code regulated nearly everything in Byzantine life: marriage, slavery, property, etc…
9 Massive building projects in capital city… Justinian strongly focused on creating a capital city that symbolized the greatness of his reign.He built-up the city’s infrastructure: bath, aqueducts, courts, schools, hospitals, etc..His greatest focus was on building grand churches, and the greatest church he ever created was the church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom); it was known as the most splendid church of the Christian world.
10 The hippodrome (Greek meaning “horse” and “Racecourse” Much like the Roman coliseum and Circus Maximus, the Hippodrome was the place in Constantinople where citizens could enjoy free entertainment.Rowdy fans would cheer their favorite teamsIn 532 fans rioted against one another, which carried into the streets of the city: Justinian crushed the riot in a brutal manner.
12 The plague of justinian A plague hit the empire and caused massive casualtiesContinual attacks by outside invaders: Lombards, Avars, Slaves, Bulgars, and the Persians.Greatest threat will be from the Turks, who conquered the Muslim world, which spilled over into Byzantium.The Ottoman Turks conquered the city of Constantinople in 1453—the Ottoman Empire will encompass this area until World War I.
13 The Church dividesChristianity developed differently in the Eastern and Western Roman EmpiresThe church will eventually split into two different denominations: Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy
14 Important figures in eastern orthodoxy Saint Basil- In 357 he wrote the rules for how monks would live their lifeSaint John Chrysostom- Bishop of Constantinople, he was the patriarch, or leading bishop of the East.Unlike the Pope, the patriarch did not have political power over kings/ emperors
15 The iconic controversy In 730, the Byzantine Emperor (Leo III) banned the use of icons (religious images) because he viewed it as idol worship.This caused a rebellion amongst the peopleThe Pope in the West got involved, which was precursor to what will eventually occur in 1054…
16 The Schism of 1054Christianity officially split into two separate religions in 1054:Roman Catholic Church in the West (Pope);Eastern Orthodox Church in the East (Patriarch)
17 The Cyrillic alphabetMissionaries from the Orthodox Church took the religion to the inhabitants to the north known as Slavs, who had no written language.Two missionaries (Cyril and Methodius) invented an alphabet for the Slavic people in order to teach them the religionThis new alphabet is known as the Cyrillic Alphabet