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The Byzantine Empire. Section 1: The Byzantine Empire  Main Idea: After Rome split, the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) flourished for a millennium!  Why.

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Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire. Section 1: The Byzantine Empire  Main Idea: After Rome split, the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) flourished for a millennium!  Why."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Byzantine Empire

2 Section 1: The Byzantine Empire  Main Idea: After Rome split, the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) flourished for a millennium!  Why It Matters Now: Byzantine culture deeply influenced Orthodox Christianity, and major branch of modern Christianity.  Terms/ Names: Justinian, Justinian Code, Hagia Sophia, Patriarch, Icon, Excommunication, and Cyrillic alphabet

3 Don’t forget what happened in the past…  The once great Roman Empire became weak, and was divided into two sections: West (Rome) and East (Constantinople)  The Western Roman Empire crumbled in the 5th Century b/c of invading Germanic tribes.  The Eastern Roman Empire (AKA Byzantium) would remain a dominate force in Asia for hundreds of years after Rome “falls”.

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5 A new rome  Justinian, a high ranking Byzantine nobleman, succeeded his uncle as the new ruler of the Eastern Empire (527).  He sent his best general (Belisarius) to reclaim N. Africa; his goal is to revive Rome’s glory days.

6 Within 16 years, Belisarius had reclaimed nearly all of the territory of the old Roman empire: Justinian is now the new Caesar, and ruled with absolute power. Byzantine emperors ruled both Church and State w/ absolute power. Many emperors died violent deaths

7 Life in new Rome  Greek (not Latin) was spoken in New Rome  Justinian est. a new code of laws for his empire:

8 Justinian Code: 1. The Code- 5,000 old Roman laws—still useful 2. The Digest- A collection of Rome’s greatest legal scholars; opinions about laws (50 volumes total) 3. The Institutes- Textbook for law students 4. The Novellae (New Laws)- Legislation passed after 534.  Justinian Code regulated nearly everything in Byzantine life: marriage, slavery, property, etc…

9 Massive building projects in capital city…  Justinian strongly focused on creating a capital city that symbolized the greatness of his reign.  He built-up the city’s infrastructure: bath, aqueducts, courts, schools, hospitals, etc..  His greatest focus was on building grand churches, and the greatest church he ever created was the church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom); it was known as the most splendid church of the Christian world.

10 The hippodrome (Greek meaning “horse” and “Racecourse”  Much like the Roman coliseum and Circus Maximus, the Hippodrome was the place in Constantinople where citizens could enjoy free entertainment.  Rowdy fans would cheer their favorite teams  In 532 fans rioted against one another, which carried into the streets of the city: Justinian crushed the riot in a brutal manner.

11 Hippodrome today: istanbul, turkey

12 The plague of justinian  A plague hit the empire and caused massive casualties  Continual attacks by outside invaders: Lombards, Avars, Slaves, Bulgars, and the Persians.  Greatest threat will be from the Turks, who conquered the Muslim world, which spilled over into Byzantium.  The Ottoman Turks conquered the city of Constantinople in 1453—the Ottoman Empire will encompass this area until World War I.

13 The Church divides  Christianity developed differently in the Eastern and Western Roman Empires  The church will eventually split into two different denominations: Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy

14 Important figures in eastern orthodoxy  Saint Basil- In 357 he wrote the rules for how monks would live their life  Saint John Chrysostom- Bishop of Constantinople, he was the patriarch, or leading bishop of the East.  Unlike the Pope, the patriarch did not have political power over kings/ emperors

15 The iconic controversy  In 730, the Byzantine Emperor (Leo III) banned the use of icons (religious images) because he viewed it as idol worship.  This caused a rebellion amongst the people  The Pope in the West got involved, which was precursor to what will eventually occur in 1054…

16 The Schism of 1054  Christianity officially split into two separate religions in 1054:  Roman Catholic Church in the West (Pope);  Eastern Orthodox Church in the East (Patriarch)

17 The Cyrillic alphabet  Missionaries from the Orthodox Church took the religion to the inhabitants to the north known as Slavs, who had no written language.  Two missionaries (Cyril and Methodius) invented an alphabet for the Slavic people in order to teach them the religion  This new alphabet is known as the Cyrillic Alphabet


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