Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire The ancient city of Byzantium was originally founded by the Greeks. At its height the Byzantine Empire controlled most of the territory."— Presentation transcript:
1 Byzantine EmpireThe ancient city of Byzantium was originally founded by the Greeks. At its height the Byzantine Empire controlled most of the territory around the Mediterranean Sea.Due to being strategically located on an Isthmus called the Bosporus Straits, Constantinople became very prosperous by controlling trade routes between Asia, Europe, Russia and the Middle East.The Byzantine Empire, once part of the greater Roman Empire continued flourishing for 1000 years after the fall of Rome.The empire continued many Greco-Roman life style patterns and spread its Orthodox Christian civilization through most of eastern Europe ( Kievian Russia) by using its missionaries.
2 Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th c Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th c. moved his capital to Constantinople calling it the ”New Rome”.Moving was necessary due to ROME constantly being invaded by the barbarians.After seeing a vision of a cross before a battle Constantine adopts Christianity for his empireGreek became the official languageConstantinople –Capital of the Byzantine Empire; constructed on the site of Byzantium, an old Greek city on the Bosporus
3 Remember…… Germanic invaders pounded the Roman empire in the west Huns – Group of nomadic tribes that pushed through central Europe in the 4th and 5th c. instigating the migration of the Germanic tribes into the Roman EmpireMost emperors that were conquered moved their empire back in the eastRemember……
4 Important New Center Constantinople “New Second Rome” Located on a strait that linked Aegean/Mediterranean and Black SeasKey trading route linking Europe, Africa and AsiaBuffer between Western Europe and AsiaHellenistic culture – After Alexander’s death, Greek art, education, and culture merged with those in the Middle EastTrade and important scientific centers were established, such as Alexandria, Egypt
6 The Age of Justinian 527-565 Byzantine empire reached greatest size Wanted to recover what had been lost during the fall of RomeRe-conquered N. Africa, Italy and southern SpainVictories were temporaryJustinian rebuilt Constantinople in classical style; among the architectural achievements was the huge church of Hagia Sophia
7 Justinian – 6th c. Byzantine emperor; failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire; rebuilt Constantinople; codified Roman lawHagia Sophia – Great domed church constructed during the reign of JustinianBody of Civil Law – Justinian’s codification of Roman law; reconciled Roman edicts and decisions; made Roman law a coherent basis for political and economic lifeJustinian helped preserve and transmit the Greek and Roman culture into his empire.Icons – Images of religious figures prohibited from being worshipped by the Byzantine Christians. This leads to the Great Schism between the Eastern/Western Catholic church.
8 Justinian codification of Roman law was his greatest achievement The revived empire withstood the 7th c. advance of Arab Muslims although important regions were lost along the eastern Mediterranean and the northern Middle Eastern heartlandHagia SophiaByzantine political patterns resembled the earlier Chinese systemEmperor, ordained by God and surrounded by elaborate court ritual, headed both church and state
9 During Middle AgesDispute over worshipping icons (Holy Images) contributed to split (Great SCHISM) between Eastern and Western ChurchesByzantine Emperor Leo III outlawed prayer to icons because it was idol worship.1054 provoked a permanent split between Byzantine, Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and Roman Catholic ChurchEastern Orthodox Church no longer recognized the supremacy of the Pope as their leader.
10 A Divided Christian Church Western Roman CatholicPope is headLocated in RomeLatin LanguagePriests cannot marryMost important holy day ChristmasCan use Icon WorshipExcommunicated Byzantine EmperorEastern OrthodoxEmperor is headPatriarch in Constantinoplerejected Pope’s authorityClergy could marryGreek LanguageMost important holy day EasterNo Icon worship
11 Compare churches…..The final break between the two churches occurred in 1054 over arguments about the type of bread used in the mass and the celibacy of priests
12 Byzantine Heritage Built on the Hellenistic culture Christian beliefs Greek science, art and literatureRoman engineering
13 Byzantine Contributions Preserved classic works of ancient GreeceMostly concerned with writing about their own timesMany went and taught at universities in Italy,Contributed to the birth of the next cultural time in European history, Renaissance
14 Religion will play a major role in decline of Byzantine Empire The long decline began in 11th c.Muslim Turkish invaders seized almost all of the empires Asian provinces, removing the most important sources of taxes/foodCrusaders, led by Venetian merchants, sacked Constantinople in WHY??????????????A smaller empire struggled to survive for another two centuriesIn 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople
15 What happened to the Byzantines? CrusadesByzantine emperor called for help to fight the Muslims headed for JerusalemWestern Christians drained $$$ from the Byzantine Empire outfitting armies
17 1453 A.D.With the use of cannons Ottoman Turk Muslims (Mehmed II) eventually took Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul
18 BenefitsLong term cultural diffusion took place between the Middle East and EuropeansThe same sharing of ideas and products took place between members of all the different armies during CrusadesWith conquest of Constantinople, the Ottoman empire will be able to expand its borders because they now control the strategic spot between Asia and EuropeEurope must now find new trade routes to get the goods from the far East