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Responding to Common Emergencies

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1 Responding to Common Emergencies
Chapter 28 Lesson 3 Responding to Common Emergencies

2 You’ll learn to… Analyze strategies for responding to muscle, joint, and bone injuries. Analyze strategies for responding to unconsciousness. Analyze strategies for responding to animal bites Analyze strategies for responding to nosebleeds and to foreign objects in the eye.

3 Injury to Muscles, Bones & Joints
When too much stress is put on an area of the body, an injury may occur. These injuries vary in severity and can affect the bones, muscles, tendons, or ligaments.

4 Injuries Injuries to muscles, bones & joints happen often
Happen to people of all ages Happen at home, at work, and at play

5 Muscle Cramps A muscle cramp is the sudden & painful tightening of a muscle. Muscle cramps can occur when you’re physically active or at rest. Some medications can also cause them.

6 Muscle Cramps continued…
If a muscle cramp occurs: Stretch out the affected muscle Massage the cramped muscle Apply moist heat Get medical help, if it persists

7 Strains Stretching and tearing of muscles & tendons
Usually resulting from overuse, caused by lifting something heavy or working muscle too hard Symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of movement. What Causes a Strain? A strain is caused by twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon. Strains can be acute or chronic. An acute strain is caused by trauma or an injury such as a blow to the body; it can also be caused by improperly lifting heavy objects or overstressing the muscles. Chronic strains are usually the result of overuse--prolonged, repetitive movement of the muscles and tendons. top Where Do Strains Usually Occur? Two common sites for a strain are the back and the hamstring muscle (located in the back of the thigh). Contact sports such as soccer, football, hockey, boxing, and wrestling put people at risk for strains. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that require extensive gripping can increase the risk of hand and forearm strains. Elbow strains sometimes occur in people who participate in racquet sports, throwing, and contact sports. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of a Strain? Typically, people with a strain experience pain, muscle spasm, and muscle weakness. They can also have localized swelling, cramping, or inflammation and, with a minor or moderate strain, usually some loss of muscle function. Patients typically have pain in the injured area and general weakness of the muscle when they attempt to move it. Severe strains that partially or completely tear the muscle or tendon are often very painful and disabling.

8 Sprain Usually result from a sudden twisting force. Tearing ligaments at a joint Mild sprains may swell, but usually heal quickly Severe sprain can involve a fracture/dislocation Joints easily injured-(ankle, knee, wrist, finger)

9 Sprains & Strains Rest Ice- 20 minutes on, 20 off
General care (R.I.C.E.) Rest Ice- 20 minutes on, 20 off Compression- elastic wrap or bandage Elevate- above the level of the heart Cold then heat-reduces swelling and pain Cold-controls/slows internal bleeding-reduces pain Broken blood vessels can constrict-limiting blood flow Reduces muscle spasms Numbs nerve endings 72 hours or swelling goes away RICE Therapy Rest Reduce regular exercise or activities of daily living as needed. Your doctor may advise you to put no weight on an injured area for 48 hours. If you cannot put weight on an ankle or knee, crutches may help. If you use a cane or one crutch for an ankle injury, use it on the uninjured side to help you lean away and relieve weight on the injured ankle. Ice Apply an ice pack to the injured area for 20 minutes at a time, 4 to 8 times a day. A cold pack, ice bag, or plastic bag filled with crushed ice and wrapped in a towel can be used. To avoid cold injury and frostbite, do not apply the ice for more than 20 minutes. Compression Compression of an injured ankle, knee, or wrist may help reduce swelling. Examples of compression bandages are elastic wraps, special boots, air casts, and splints. Ask your doctor for advice on which one to use. Elevation If possible, keep the injured ankle, knee, elbow, or wrist elevated on a pillow, above the level of the heart, to help decrease swelling.

10 Four Basic Types of Injuries
Fractures Dislocations Strains Sprains

11 Fractures Complete break, chip or crack Closed
Fractures can be life-threatening if they involve breaks in large bones, sever an artery, affects breathing May not be obvious

12 Fractures Open (compound)-bone breaks through the skin

13 Dislocations Is the movement of a bone at a joint from its normal position Usually more obvious than a fracture Usually tears ligament away from bone Forms a bump, ridge or hallow

14 Splinting Splint only when victim must be moved
Only if you can do it without causing more pain Splint the injury in the position you find it Check circulation

15 Types of Splints Soft splints Anatomic splints Slings Rigid splints

16 Unconsciousness Is a condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his or her surroundings. There are different levels of unconsciousness ranging from drowsiness to coma. The primary goal when providing first aid to an unconscious victim is to prevent choking. Place victim in the recovery position until professional medical help arrives.

17 Recovery Position

18 Fainting Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate. Loss of consciousness is usually brief. Treat fainting as a medical emergency until the symptoms are relieved and the cause is known.

19 Fainting continued… If you feel faint, lie/sit down and place your head between your knees. If someone else faints, position the person on his/her back with legs elevated 8-12” above the heart, unless you suspect a head, neck or back injury. If the victim vomits, roll him/her into the recovery position.

20 Concussion Is a jarring injury to the brain that affects normal brain function. If you suspect a person has a concussion: Have victim lie down Use first aid for any bleeding If unconscious and you do not suspect a head, neck or back injury, place him/her into the recovery position and call 911.

21 Animal Bites One of the most serious consequences of an animal bite is rabies, a viral disease of the nervous system that causes paralysis and death if not treated. There is no cure for rabies after symptoms appear.

22 Animal Bites Animal bites also carry the risk for infection, including tetanus (often a fatal disease) Tetanus can be treated, the treatment is long, difficult, and often unsuccessful. It can be prevented by keeping immunizations up to date.

23 First Aid for Animal Bites
Wash the bite area with mild soap & warm water for five minutes to remove saliva & any other foreign matter. Use direct pressure to control bleeding. If the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 minutes Cover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage

24 Nosebleeds Often occur if the nose is struck or if the mucous membranes dry out Seek medical attention if they occur often. Treatment: Tell person to breath through his/her mouth Have person sit and lean forward Do not tilt the head back-this may cause choking if blood runs down the back of the throat. Use a protective barrier and press on the bleeding nostril

25 Object in the Eye Foreign objects (dirt, sand, slivers of wood or metal) that enter the eye are irritating & can cause damage. Encourage the person not to rub the eye, but to blink several times. If blinking does not work, try and find it in the eye. First wash your hands and gently pull the lower eyelid down while the person looks up. If you do not see anything , hold the upper eyelid & examine while the person looks down.

26 Object in the Eye continued…
If you see the object on the surface of the eye, lightly touch it with a moist cotton swab. You can also flush the eye with sterile saline solution or tap water. Tilt the person’s head to the side so that the affected eye is lower than the unaffected eye. Hold the eye open and pour a steady stream of cool water into the eye. Seek professional help if the object is not removed.

27 Chapter 28 Lesson 3 Review Questions
What is a fracture? What is the primary goal when providing first aid? What are two common causes of nosebleeds? What does R.I.C.E stand for? And what is it used for?

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