Chapter 28 Lesson 3 Responding to Common Emergencies
You’ll learn to… Analyze strategies for responding to muscle, joint, and bone injuries. Analyze strategies for responding to unconsciousness. Analyze strategies for responding to animal bites Analyze strategies for responding to nosebleeds and to foreign objects in the eye.
Injury to Muscles, Bones & Joints When too much stress is put on an area of the body, an injury may occur. These injuries vary in severity and can affect the bones, muscles, tendons, or ligaments.
Injuries Injuries to muscles, bones & joints happen often Happen to people of all ages Happen at home, at work, and at play
Muscle Cramps A muscle cramp is the sudden & painful tightening of a muscle. Muscle cramps can occur when you’re physically active or at rest. Some medications can also cause them.
Muscle Cramps continued… If a muscle cramp occurs: Stretch out the affected muscle Massage the cramped muscle Apply moist heat Get medical help, if it persists
Strains Stretching and tearing of muscles & tendons Usually resulting from overuse, caused by lifting something heavy or working muscle too hard Symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of movement.
Sprain Usually result from a sudden twisting force. Tearing ligaments at a joint Mild sprains may swell, but usually heal quickly Severe sprain can involve a fracture/dislocation Joints easily injured- (ankle, knee, wrist, finger)
Sprains & Strains General care (R.I.C.E.) R est I ce- 20 minutes on, 20 off C ompression- elastic wrap or bandage E levate- above the level of the heart Cold then heat-reduces swelling and pain
Four Basic Types of Injuries Fractures Dislocations Strains Sprains
Fractures Complete break, chip or crack Closed Fractures can be life-threatening if they involve breaks in large bones, sever an artery, affects breathing
Fractures Open (compound)- bone breaks through the skin
Dislocations Is the movement of a bone at a joint from its normal position Usually more obvious than a fracture Usually tears ligament away from bone Forms a bump, ridge or hallow
Splinting Splint only when victim must be moved Only if you can do it without causing more pain Splint the injury in the position you find it Check circulation
Unconsciousness Is a condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his or her surroundings. There are different levels of unconsciousness ranging from drowsiness to coma. The primary goal when providing first aid to an unconscious victim is to prevent choking. Place victim in the recovery position until professional medical help arrives.
Fainting Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate. Loss of consciousness is usually brief. Treat fainting as a medical emergency until the symptoms are relieved and the cause is known.
Fainting continued… If you feel faint, lie/sit down and place your head between your knees. If someone else faints, position the person on his/her back with legs elevated 8-12” above the heart, unless you suspect a head, neck or back injury. If the victim vomits, roll him/her into the recovery position.
Concussion Is a jarring injury to the brain that affects normal brain function. If you suspect a person has a concussion: Have victim lie down Use first aid for any bleeding If unconscious and you do not suspect a head, neck or back injury, place him/her into the recovery position and call 911.
Animal Bites One of the most serious consequences of an animal bite is rabies, a viral disease of the nervous system that causes paralysis and death if not treated. There is no cure for rabies after symptoms appear.
Animal bites also carry the risk for infection, including tetanus (often a fatal disease) Tetanus can be treated, the treatment is long, difficult, and often unsuccessful. It can be prevented by keeping immunizations up to date. Animal Bites
First Aid for Animal Bites Wash the bite area with mild soap & warm water for five minutes to remove saliva & any other foreign matter. Use direct pressure to control bleeding. If the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 minutes Cover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage
Nosebleeds Often occur if the nose is struck or if the mucous membranes dry out Seek medical attention if they occur often. Treatment: Tell person to breath through his/her mouth Have person sit and lean forward Do not tilt the head back-this may cause choking if blood runs down the back of the throat. Use a protective barrier and press on the bleeding nostril
Object in the Eye Foreign objects (dirt, sand, slivers of wood or metal) that enter the eye are irritating & can cause damage. Encourage the person not to rub the eye, but to blink several times. If blinking does not work, try and find it in the eye. First wash your hands and gently pull the lower eyelid down while the person looks up. If you do not see anything, hold the upper eyelid & examine while the person looks down.
Object in the Eye continued… If you see the object on the surface of the eye, lightly touch it with a moist cotton swab. You can also flush the eye with sterile saline solution or tap water. Tilt the person’s head to the side so that the affected eye is lower than the unaffected eye. Hold the eye open and pour a steady stream of cool water into the eye. Seek professional help if the object is not removed.
Chapter 28 Lesson 3 Review Questions 1.What is a fracture? 2.What is the primary goal when providing first aid? 3.What are two common causes of nosebleeds? 4.What does R.I.C.E stand for? And what is it used for?