Presentation on theme: "Responding to Common Emergencies"— Presentation transcript:
1Responding to Common Emergencies Chapter 28 Lesson 3Responding to Common Emergencies
2You’ll learn to…Analyze strategies for responding to muscle, joint, and bone injuries.Analyze strategies for responding to unconsciousness.Analyze strategies for responding to animal bitesAnalyze strategies for responding to nosebleeds and to foreign objects in the eye.
3Injury to Muscles, Bones & Joints When too much stress is put on an area of the body, an injury may occur.These injuries vary in severity and can affect the bones, muscles, tendons, or ligaments.
4Injuries Injuries to muscles, bones & joints happen often Happen to people of all agesHappen at home, at work, and at play
5Muscle CrampsA muscle cramp is the sudden & painful tightening of a muscle.Muscle cramps can occur when you’re physically active or at rest.Some medications can also cause them.
6Muscle Cramps continued… If a muscle cramp occurs:Stretch out the affected muscleMassage the cramped muscleApply moist heatGet medical help, if it persists
7Strains Stretching and tearing of muscles & tendons Usually resulting from overuse, caused by lifting something heavy or working muscle too hardSymptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of movement.What Causes a Strain?A strain is caused by twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon. Strains can be acute or chronic. An acute strain is caused by trauma or an injury such as a blow to the body; it can also be caused by improperly lifting heavy objects or overstressing the muscles. Chronic strains are usually the result of overuse--prolonged, repetitive movement of the muscles and tendons.topWhere Do Strains Usually Occur?Two common sites for a strain are the back and the hamstring muscle (located in the back of the thigh). Contact sports such as soccer, football, hockey, boxing, and wrestling put people at risk for strains. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that require extensive gripping can increase the risk of hand and forearm strains. Elbow strains sometimes occur in people who participate in racquet sports, throwing, and contact sports.What Are the Signs and Symptoms of a Strain?Typically, people with a strain experience pain, muscle spasm, and muscle weakness. They can also have localized swelling, cramping, or inflammation and, with a minor or moderate strain, usually some loss of muscle function. Patients typically have pain in the injured area and general weakness of the muscle when they attempt to move it. Severe strains that partially or completely tear the muscle or tendon are often very painful and disabling.
8SprainUsually result from a sudden twisting force. Tearing ligaments at a jointMild sprains may swell, but usually heal quicklySevere sprain can involve a fracture/dislocationJoints easily injured-(ankle, knee, wrist, finger)
9Sprains & Strains Rest Ice- 20 minutes on, 20 off General care (R.I.C.E.)RestIce- 20 minutes on, 20 offCompression- elastic wrap or bandageElevate- above the level of the heartCold then heat-reduces swelling and painCold-controls/slows internal bleeding-reduces painBroken blood vessels can constrict-limiting blood flowReduces muscle spasmsNumbs nerve endings72 hours or swelling goes awayRICE TherapyRest Reduce regular exercise or activities of daily living as needed. Your doctor may advise you to put no weight on an injured area for 48 hours. If you cannot put weight on an ankle or knee, crutches may help. If you use a cane or one crutch for an ankle injury, use it on the uninjured side to help you lean away and relieve weight on the injured ankle.Ice Apply an ice pack to the injured area for 20 minutes at a time, 4 to 8 times a day. A cold pack, ice bag, or plastic bag filled with crushed ice and wrapped in a towel can be used. To avoid cold injury and frostbite, do not apply the ice for more than 20 minutes.Compression Compression of an injured ankle, knee, or wrist may help reduce swelling. Examples of compression bandages are elastic wraps, special boots, air casts, and splints. Ask your doctor for advice on which one to use.Elevation If possible, keep the injured ankle, knee, elbow, or wrist elevated on a pillow, above the level of the heart, to help decrease swelling.
10Four Basic Types of Injuries FracturesDislocationsStrainsSprains
11Fractures Complete break, chip or crack Closed Fractures can be life-threatening if they involve breaks in large bones, sever an artery, affects breathingMay not be obvious
12FracturesOpen (compound)-bone breaks through the skin
13DislocationsIs the movement of a bone at a joint from its normal positionUsually more obvious than a fractureUsually tears ligament away from boneForms a bump, ridge or hallow
14Splinting Splint only when victim must be moved Only if you can do it without causing more painSplint the injury in the position you find itCheck circulation
15Types of SplintsSoft splintsAnatomic splintsSlingsRigid splints
16UnconsciousnessIs a condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his or her surroundings.There are different levels of unconsciousness ranging from drowsiness to coma.The primary goal when providing first aid to an unconscious victim is to prevent choking.Place victim in the recovery position until professional medical help arrives.
18FaintingOccurs when the blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate.Loss of consciousness is usually brief.Treat fainting as a medical emergency until the symptoms are relieved and the cause is known.
19Fainting continued…If you feel faint, lie/sit down and place your head between your knees.If someone else faints, position the person on his/her back with legs elevated 8-12” above the heart, unless you suspect a head, neck or back injury.If the victim vomits, roll him/her into the recovery position.
20ConcussionIs a jarring injury to the brain that affects normal brain function.If you suspect a person has a concussion:Have victim lie downUse first aid for any bleedingIf unconscious and you do not suspect a head, neck or back injury, place him/her into the recovery position and call 911.
21Animal BitesOne of the most serious consequences of an animal bite is rabies, a viral disease of the nervous system that causes paralysis and death if not treated.There is no cure for rabies after symptoms appear.
22Animal BitesAnimal bites also carry the risk for infection, including tetanus (often a fatal disease)Tetanus can be treated, the treatment is long, difficult, and often unsuccessful.It can be prevented by keeping immunizations up to date.
23First Aid for Animal Bites Wash the bite area with mild soap & warm water for five minutes to remove saliva & any other foreign matter.Use direct pressure to control bleeding.If the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 minutesCover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage
24NosebleedsOften occur if the nose is struck or if the mucous membranes dry outSeek medical attention if they occur often.Treatment:Tell person to breath through his/her mouthHave person sit and lean forwardDo not tilt the head back-this may cause choking if blood runs down the back of the throat.Use a protective barrier and press on the bleeding nostril
25Object in the EyeForeign objects (dirt, sand, slivers of wood or metal) that enter the eye are irritating & can cause damage.Encourage the person not to rub the eye, but to blink several times.If blinking does not work, try and find it in the eye.First wash your hands and gently pull the lower eyelid down while the person looks up.If you do not see anything , hold the upper eyelid & examine while the person looks down.
26Object in the Eye continued… If you see the object on the surface of the eye, lightly touch it with a moist cotton swab.You can also flush the eye with sterile saline solution or tap water.Tilt the person’s head to the side so that the affected eye is lower than the unaffected eye.Hold the eye open and pour a steady stream of cool water into the eye.Seek professional help if the object is not removed.
27Chapter 28 Lesson 3 Review Questions What is a fracture?What is the primary goal when providing first aid?What are two common causes of nosebleeds?What does R.I.C.E stand for? And what is it used for?