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Chapter 22 The Chest and Abdomen. © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives  Upon completion of this chapter, you.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 The Chest and Abdomen. © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives  Upon completion of this chapter, you."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 The Chest and Abdomen

2 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  Describe the anatomy of the thoracic cavity  Describe the structures and functions of the organs of respiration  Explain the breathing and respiratory process

3 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 3 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives (cont’d.)  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to (cont’d.):  Discuss the significance of chest and abdominal injuries  List and describe the various injuries associated with the thoracic cavity  List and describe the various injuries associated with the abdominal cavity

4 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 4 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Ribs & Sternum  Sternum (“breastbone”)—3 parts  Manubrium  Body  Xiphoid process  Ribs—12 pairs  7 true  3 false ribs—do not connect to sternum directly  2 floating—no connection to sternum at all

5 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 5 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Respiratory System  Obtains oxygen for use by body cells  Eliminates carbon dioxide produced in cellular respiration

6 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 6 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Respiratory System (cont’d.)  Air moves into the lungs through passageways:  Nasal cavity  Pharynx (throat)  Larynx (voice box)  Trachea (wind pipe)  Bronchi (branches of trachea)  Bronchioles  Alveoli

7 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 7 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Respiration  Process by which body supplies cells and tissues with oxygen for metabolism and relieves them of carbon dioxide  External respiration  Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and outside environment—breathing  Internal respiration  Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between cells and lymph, plus oxidative process of energy in cells (cellular respiration)

8 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 8 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Frequency of Respiration  Adults  per minute  Children  per minute

9 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 9 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Control of Breathing  Rate of breathing is controlled by neural (nervous) and chemical factors  Same goal but function independently  Chemical control of respiration depends on carbon dioxide level in the blood  Chemoreceptors in carotid arteries and aorta are sensitive to blood oxygen levels

10 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 10 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Lung Capacity and Volume  Factors:  Tidal volume  Inspiratory reserve volume  Expiratory reserve volume  Vital lung capacity  Residual volume  Functional residual capacity  Total lung capacity  Use a spirometer— measures volume & flow of air

11 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Disorders of the Respiratory System  Asthma  Muscles around airways tighten and airway lining swells and gets clogged with thick mucus  Symptoms: coughing, wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), and chest tightness  Treatment: varies  Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA)  Increased physical activity causes narrowing of airway

12 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 12 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chest (Thorax) Injuries  Rib contusions  Caused by a forceful blow to the ribcage that bruises intercostal muscle  S/S: point tender, pain when breathing  Treatment: removal from activity, ice  Rib fractures  Break in bony structure of thorax  Most often the result of a direct blow to the ribcage

13 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 13 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chest (Thorax) Injuries (cont’d.)  Chest contusions  Bruising over central area of chest  Results from a compressive, forceful blow to the body  Myocardial contusion and aortic rupture  Occurs if force applied to sternum is great enough to compress the heart against the spine  Emergency!

14 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 14 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chest (Thorax) Injuries (cont’d.)  Sudden death syndrome  Usually caused by some form of heart disease  Pneumothorax  Occurs when air enters thoracic cavity between the chest wall and lung  Sucking chest wound  Spontaneous pneumothorax  Tension pneumothorax

15 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 15 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chest (Thorax) Injuries (cont’d.)  Hemopneumothorax  Can occur with both open and closed chest injuries  Often accompanies a pneumothorax  Blood accumulates in pleural space between chest wall and lung  Pulmonary contusion  Bruise on lung caused by a direct blow

16 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 16 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chest (Thorax) Injuries (cont’d.)  Blows to the solar plexus  “Having the wind knocked out”  Hyperventilation  Breathing at a rate faster than required for proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide  Side stitches  Occur during vigorous exercises  Usually with novice exercisers

17 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Injury Prevention for the Chest  Begins with proper equipment and education  Good, well-maintained, equipment that fits properly will reduce chance of injury  At risk athletes should wear additional protection  Education and use of proper techniques can also minimize risk of trauma

18 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 18 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Abdominopelvic Cavity  One large cavity, with no separation between the abdomen and pelvis  Abdominal cavity contains: stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix, and part of the large intestines  Kidneys are close to but behind abdominal cavity  Pelvic cavity contains: urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, remainder of large intestine, and appendix

19 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 19 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Protection of the Abdominal Organs  Abdominal area is vulnerable to injury  Muscular abdominal wall is most commonly involved  Injury to contents of abdominal cavity are infrequent  Musculature of abdominal wall provides adequate protection from most injuries  Serious injuries to the intra-abdominal contents occur and can be life threatening

20 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 20 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning The 4 Quadrants of the Abdomen

21 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 21 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Organs of the Abdominopelvic Cavity  Stomach  Small intestine  Pancreas  Liver  Gallbladder  Urinary bladder  Large intestine  Colon  Cecum  Appendix  Kidneys

22 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 22 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Abdominal Injuries  Kidney contusion  Uncommon in athletics  Occurs with a violent blow to upper posterior abdominal wall  Liver contusion  Uncommon but probable life-threatening injury  Occurs with a hard blow to right side of ribcage

23 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 23 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Abdominal Injuries (cont’d.)  Spleen injuries  Treat as medical emergency  Results from a blow to the left upper quadrant, lower left ribcage, or left side of the back  Kehr’s sign: pain radiates to left shoulder and down left arm  Hernias  Protrusion of abdominal tissue through a portion of the abdominal wall

24 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 24 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Conclusion  The chest and abdomen contain the body’s vital organs  Organs in the chest are protected by the ribcage  Chest contains the heart and lungs  Abdomen contains kidneys, liver, spleen, stomach, urinary bladder, intestines, among others

25 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 25 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Conclusion (cont’d.)  Chest and abdominal injuries are uncommon in athletics, but do occur  Most internal organs are very vascular and can bleed profusely if injured  Proper recognition and treatment of these injuries are vital to the health and well-being of the athlete


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