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Functions of the Respiratory system

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1 Functions of the Respiratory system
P6 M3 Functions of the Respiratory system

2 General description The respiratory system is responsible for:
getting oxygen in to our body Getting carbon dioxide and other waste products out of our body All living creatures need Oxygen in combination with food to produce energy and movement. Every cell of the body needs Oxygen to function Respiration is the process by which cells receive a constant supply of oxygen and carbon dioxide is removed.

3 General description… The aim of the respiratory system is to get:
Oxygen to the bloodstream so that the CV system can deliver it to the muscles. Carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream All endurance performance relies on Delivery of Oxygen into the blood stream Removal of Carbon Dioxide out of the blood Give a couple of specific examples in your worksheet General description… When we exercise: CO2 dissolves within the bloodstream and increases acidity levels. So the respiratory centre in the brain speeds up the rate of breathing to get rid of excess CO2. So rate of breathing increases due to CO2 levels rising. Not the cells demanding more O2.

4 Gaseous Exchange: Diffusion
Gases move through a process called diffusion Gas moves from a high concentration to a low concentration Eg: someone wearing perfume. In the respiratory system Two different types of diffusion: Diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream, attracted by haemoglobin Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide out of the blood stream to be excreted by the lungs

5 Diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream
The alveoli are in constant contact with the capillaries The air we breath in arrives in the alveoli, rich in Oxygen The blood arrives from the pulmonary artery very low in oxygen Following the principle of diffusion, the Oxygen moves across the capillary wall and into the blood stream It is attracted by the haemoglobin into the red blood cells The blood returns to the heart to be pumped to the rest of the body

6 Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide out of the blood stream
The blood arrives in capillaries of the lungs with a high concentration of Carbon Dioxide The air in the alveoli has a low concentration of Carbon Dioxide According to the principles of diffusion, the Carbon dioxide moves across the wall of the capillaries and into the alveoli, so that it can be expired.

7 The mechanics of breathing
Breathing is regulated by: the respiratory centre, located in the brain. Receptors in the air passages and lungs Breathing in = Inspiration Breathing out = Expiration To breathe the thorax must increase and then decrease in size Overview

8 Inspiration In order to breathe in the volume of the chest cavity needs to increase. This increase in size of the chest cavity, causes a decrease in pressure within the lungs Boyle’s Law states that a volume of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. This means that the increase in volume in the lungs causes a decrease in pressure. Gases flow from a high pressure area to a low pressure area In this situation the ambient air is the high pressure area and the lungs are the low pressure area, so the air flows into the lungs

9 Inspiration Inspiration – Breathing in Diaphragm contracts
It flattens and pulls down This is an active process External intercostal muscles contract The sternum moves up and out, with the lungs following The lungs are attached to the pleural sac (containing pleural fluid), which in turn is attached to the thoracic cage As the chest expands, the surface tension, created by the film of pleural fluid causes the lungs to be pulled outwards, with the chest These two actions cause the volume of the thoracic cavity to increase According to Boyles Law this increase in volume causes a decrease in pressure Air flows into the lungs As gas flows from high pressure to low pressure.

10 Expiration To breathe out – Expiration: Diaphragm relaxes
It moves back up and into the thoracic cavity This is a passive process The external intercostal muscles relax The ribs/sternum moves down. The lungs, sternum and rib cage are elastic structures that naturally 'spring' back to their resting positions once the forces of the inspiratory muscles are removed. So expiration is a passive process. The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases causing the air to move out of the lungs. This is because air pressure in the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure, according to Boyles Law, so the air is forced out of the lungs to equate the pressure in and out of the body.

11 The muscles of breathing

12 Respiratory volumes

13 Lung Volumes Lung volumes: refers to physical differences in lung volume, while lung capacities represent different combinations of lung volumes, usually in relation to inhalation and exhalation. The average pair of human lungs can hold about 6 litres of air, but only a small amount of this capacity is used during normal breathing.

14 Spirometer trace

15 Respiratory volumes Tidal Volume
The volume of air inspired or expired per breath (Approx 500ml at rest) Inspiratory Reserve Volume The amount of space that is available to draw in more air Eg; Breathe in normally, then breathe in more. This extra capacity is your IRV Expiratory Reserve Volume The amount of space that is available to breathe out, once you have exhaled normally Eg: Breathe out normally, then force out more air. This is your ERV.

16 Respiratory volumes Residual Volume Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
Take in as much breath as possible This is your total lung capacity ERV+IRV+TV+RV (Approx 6000ml) Residual Volume Breathe out as much as possible There is always some air left in your lungs This is your RV (Approx 1200ml) Vital Capacity Breathe in as much as you can, and then force as much air out of your lungs as possible. This is your IRV+ERV+TV, and is your Vital Capacity

17 2. Function: Examine the respiratory system
Describe the (1) Structure with all the parts named BELOW and (2) Function (1-4 BELOW) of the respiratory system. Examine the respiratory system and explain how it works and how each part of the system is designed to meet its function 1. Structure of the respiratory system: Nasal cavity Epiglottis Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli) Diaphragm Intercostal muscles (external and internal) 2. Function: 1. Gaseous exchange 2. Mechanisms of breathing (inspiration and expiration) 3. Lung volumes: e.g. tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume 4. Control of breathing (neural and chemical)

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