Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Accelerated Biology.  The job of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide  CO2 is a waste product of cellular respiration.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Accelerated Biology.  The job of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide  CO2 is a waste product of cellular respiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Accelerated Biology

2  The job of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide  CO2 is a waste product of cellular respiration and is toxic to cells  Then, the circulatory system transports the oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body

3  Nasal cavity – lined with cilia to trap inhaled particles and moisten and warm the air  mucus – traps inhaled particles  cilia – sweeps mucus up to throat to be swallowed  Pharynx – where oral and nasal cavities meet.  Passageway for air and food  Larynx – voice box

4 Ciliated epithelium of the respiratory system. SEM X5000

5  Epiglottis – flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering your lungs

6  Trachea – wind pipe with cartilaginous rings  Bronchi – two branches of the trachea that lead to each lung

7  Bronchiole – smaller branches of the two bronchi that end in tiny air sacs called alveoli

8  Alveoli – You have 300,000,000 air sacs in your lungs where gas exchange occurs  Increase the surface area of your lungs to 42x the surface area of your body  Their membranes are one cell thick and are surrounded with capillaries.

9

10  Diaphragm – thin sheet of smooth muscle spanning the rib cage that moves up and down to bring air into and out of the lungs

11  Breathing occurs because of air pressure differences between the lungs and the atmosphere  Lungs have no muscles, so the work is done by the diaphragm and intercostal muscles  Intercostals – muscles between the ribs

12  Gain O 2 by inhaling  Intercostals and diaphragm contract  Diaphragm flattens and pulls downward  Rib cage is pushed up and out causing a decrease in the air pressure in the lungs (air pressure in lungs is now lower than atmospheric pressure)  Air is sucked into lungs

13  Rid body of CO 2 by exhaling  Passive - also due to change in lung air pressure  Intercostals and diaphragm relax, decreasing the volume in the chest cavity  Increases the air pressure in the lungs (higher than atmospheric pressure)  Air is forced out

14

15  The exchange of CO 2 and O 2 in both the body tissues and the lungs. Occurs as a result of diffusion  O 2 from alveoli diffuses into the blood in the capillaries, in turn CO 2 in the blood diffuses into the alveoli  Body tissues – CO 2 levels high, O 2 levels low  RBC in lungs – O 2 levels high, CO 2 levels low

16  Receptors in the brain and the cardiovascular system continually monitor the levels of O 2 and CO 2 in the blood  As CO 2 levels increase, the pH decreases (blood becomes more acidic) causing a person’s breathing rate to increase. Thus, they will expel more CO 2 and take in more O 2

17  CO 2 combines with H 2 O to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 )  Carbonic acid breaks up to form bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 ) and Hydrogen ions (H + )  Most CO 2 travels to the lungs as bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 )  The H + ions is what makes the blood acidic, causing an increase in breathing.  The Equation: H 2 O + CO 2  H 2 CO 3  HCO H +

18  Carbon Monoxide binds more readily to hemoglobin than oxygen and carbon dioxide  If present, it will prevent oxygen from being delivered and lead to hypoxia, an inadequate oxygen supply

19

20  Asthma – Chronic condition where the bronchioles of the lungs become inflamed due to sensitivity of stimuli in the air  Bronchial walls tighten and extra mucus is produced causing airways to narrow  Strenuous exercise and stressful situations can trigger an asthma attack

21  Emphysema – Elastic fibers in the lungs are destroyed  Begins with the destruction of the alveoli  Results in fatigue and breathlessness  Smoking causes 90% of emphysema cases

22  Lung Cancer – abnormal cell growth  One of the leading of causes of death in the world  Accounts for 28% of all cancer deaths  Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer


Download ppt "Accelerated Biology.  The job of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide  CO2 is a waste product of cellular respiration."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google