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Unit 2: Revolutionary War Ch. 5 Deciding Where Loyalties Lie 1763-1776.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Revolutionary War Ch. 5 Deciding Where Loyalties Lie 1763-1776."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2: Revolutionary War Ch. 5 Deciding Where Loyalties Lie 1763-1776

2 Victory’s New Problems

3 Dealing with Indian & French Canadian Resistance British P.M. George Grenville set out to solve the empire’s new problems In order to solve the Indian problem, he issued the Proclamation of 1763 In order to win over the French- speaking Catholic Canadians, he allowed them to preserve their religious & cultural ways

4 Revenue Taxes In order to deal with the debt from the F/I War, he passed acts designed to raise tax revenues in the colonies for the British govt. Sugar Act 1764 Quartering Act 1765 Stamp Act 1765 First direct tax on the colonists Required the use of govt-stamped paper, signifying the payment of the tax, on almost 50 different documents Would affect everyone

5 American Reaction to the Taxes Samuel Adams started a secret resistance organization called the Sons of Liberty, in which they staged public demonstrations & protests

6 American Reaction to the Taxes Patrick Henry from the H of B in VA introduced 7 resolutions denouncing the Stamp Act “no taxation without representation” Most colonial assemblies followed VA’s lead & issued statements condemning the Stamp Act Grenville responded by saying Americans were represented in Parliament under the theory of “virtual representation”

7 American Reaction to the Taxes Oct. 1765 delegates from 9 colonies met at the Stamp Act Congress in New York City Claimed that only colonial legislatures had the authority to tax the colonists Significance – break down sectional divisions

8 American Reaction to the Taxes Colonists agreed to boycott British goods, leading to the spread of the non-importation movement Artisans & laborers saw the chance to sell their own goods Women agreed to make homespun cloth as a replacement to British textiles

9 Repeal of the Stamp Act Grenville was replaced by Lord Rockingham, who repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766, but passed the Declaratory Act instead Reaffirmed Parliament’s right to pass legislation for & raise taxes from the colonies

10 Asserting American Independence

11 The Townshend Acts & Colonial Protest New P.M. Charles Townshend imposed new taxes on the colonies through the Townshend Acts Taxed imported items including glass, paper, paint, & lead products Also placed a three-penny tax on tea Ordered new customs boards to collect the taxes Relocated “redcoats” to port cities to keep the peace

12 The Townshend Acts & Colonial Protest John Dickinson wrote a pamphlet titled “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” Claimed the T.A. violated the principle of “no taxation w/o representation” Criticized “virtual representation” Another massive boycott of British goods began in 1768

13 Boston Massacre Facing the breakdown of law & order in Boston, the governor requested the support of British soldiers (1768)

14 Boston Massacre Colonists taunted them, leading to a major confrontation on March 5, 1770 Townspeople began throwing snowballs at the redcoats Nervous & provoked soldiers opened fire, killing 5 Years later, the incident was used as colonial propaganda

15 The Crisis Renewed

16 Disturbing the Peace of the Early 1770s In March 1770, the new P.M. Lord North repealed all taxes, except that on tea Period of relative peace set in, but only temporarily

17 Disturbing the Peace of the Early 1770s June 1772, Rhode Island merchants sought revenge on customs operations Local men boarded the Gaspee, looted it, & torched it

18 Disturbing the Peace of the Early 1770s Colonies organized the Committees of Correspondence to keep alive opposition to British policies by spreading ideas & info

19 The Tea Act & the Tea Party 1773 the British East India Tea Company was facing bankruptcy Parliament tried to save them by allowing them to ship their tea directly to the colonial market at lower prices However, the three-penny tax still remained

20 The Tea Act & the Tea Party Crowds met the ships carrying the tea & prevented them from unloading it MA governor Thomas Hutchinson refused to allow the ships to leave until they unloaded their cargo

21 The Tea Act & the Tea Party 1773 Bostonians who were part of the Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Indians, boarded the ships & dumped the tea

22 The Intolerable Acts Parliament responded quickly to the Tea Party with acts that punished Boston Port Act MA Govt. Act Justice Act A new Quartering Act

23 Quebec Act At the same time, the British govt. passed the Quebec Act French in Canada were allowed to practice Catholicism Expanded the Canadian border to the Ohio River

24 The First Continental Congress 1774 Delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies met in Philly to discuss ways of redressing colonial grievances S. Adams, J. Adams, G. Washington, P. Henry

25 The First Continental Congress 1774 Wrote the Declaration of Rights & Grievances, in which they allowed Parliament to regulate trade but refused to allow them to impose revenue taxes w/o their consent Demanded the repeal of the Intolerable Acts Approved the Continental Association, which called for a complete boycott of all British goods

26 The Decision for Independence

27 Lexington & Concord April 1775 General Gage sent troops through Lexington to Concord to seize a stockpile of weapons & to arrest radical leaders S. Adams & J. Hancock

28 Lexington & Concord April 1775 On April 18, 1775 Paul Revere & others rode off to warn the militia of the approaching army

29 Lexington & Concord April 1775 At Lexington, the redcoats fired on the colonial militiamen, killing 8

30 Lexington & Concord April 1775 Redcoats marched on to Concord where they didn’t find weapons but instead were forced to retreat by the Concord Minutemen 73 redcoats were killed War had begun

31 Second Continental Congress Met in Philly 1775 Authorized the printing of American paper money Approved the creation of a Continental Army & appointed G. Washington to serve as commander

32 Second Continental Congress Hoping to find a peaceful solution, they offered King George III the Olive Branch Petition Reasserted colonial loyalty to the crown Asked the king to intervene with Parliament on their behalf The king rejected it

33 Second Continental Congress The king approved the Prohibitory Act, which declared the colonies in rebellion & no longer under his protection

34 The Impact of “Common Sense” Up until 1776, most patriots had blamed the problems on Parliament, not the king Then in Jan. 1776, Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called “Common Sense”, in which he attacked the sanctity of the monarchy head-on

35 The Impact of “Common Sense” He called for immediate independence His simple, yet emotional writing style spoke directly to ordinary citizens, not just the political elite

36 Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson, the 2 nd C.C. formally ratified it on July 4, 1776

37 Declaration of Independence Contained a preamble that heavily reflected the philosophy of John Locke regarding natural rights Listed grievances that focused on the king’s abuse of power Signified the official break of the colonies from England

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