Presentation on theme: "Escalation to Revolution British Actions & Colonial Reactions."— Presentation transcript:
Escalation to Revolution British Actions & Colonial Reactions
British Actions Sugar Act -1764- tax on sugar was technically lowered, but smuggling and bribes (how colonists had gotten around the tax) were ended. People actually paid more taxes Stamp Act -1765- tax on all legal documents (wills, diplomas, marriage papers) as well as newspapers, almanacs, calendars, cards, and dice.
British Actions Parliament repeals (takes back) the Stamp Act because trade decreased. Parliament passes the Declaratory Act: -Britain has the right to raise taxes and make laws no matter what.
British Actions Townshend Acts -May 1767- tax on goods like glass, paper, silk, lead, and tea (low taxes, but colonists still object on principle) -customs officials sent to prevent smuggling -given writs of assistance to do so writ of assistance - a legal document allowing customs officers to inspect a ship without a reason
Colonial Actions Sons of Liberty- formed during Stamp Act protests by Samuel Adams -came up with ways to protest taxes and acts (fake hangings of straw men dressed like tax collectors) Daughters of Liberty- pledged to wear dresses of homespun cloth. -boycotted than English fabric Nonimportation Acts- (not actually a law) -colonists agreed to stop importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts.
British Actions Quartering Act- law that said colonists had to pay for the housing of British soldiers. Boston Massacre- March 5, 1770- crowd gathered outside a Boston Customs house -taunted guards and threw snowballs & oyster shells -guards told the crowd to go home -guards panicked and fired into the crowd -five people were killed - The first man killed was named: Crispus Attucks
Colonial Actions Committee of Correspondance- in response to the "massacre" Samuel Adams set up: -an organization to spread alarm and news anytime the British acted unjustly around the colonies - Adams also named the event the "Boston Massacre" -Meanwhile, John Adams served as the lawyer defending the British Soldiers who fired on the crowd.
British Actions On the same day as the "Massacre" British Parliament was meeting to: -repealed all taxes except for some on tea. -For a little while, colonists were pleased and ended their boycotts. Three years of general calm followed... until
British Actions Tea Act -1773- Parliament passed the Tea Act to help the financially troubled British East India Company -The act would have actually LOWERED the price of tea for colonists. -The act let the British East India Company sell: Directly to the customer instead of only to American tea merchants.
Colonial Actions The idea behind the Tea Act backfired on the British: -Colonists were upset because many colonial merchants would lose their jobs. -Many ships carrying tea were sent back to England or not allowed to unload their cargo -Three ships remained docked outside of Boston Harbor with the tea still onboard...
Boston Tea Party - December 16, 1773 - Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty demanded that the three ships with the tea be sent back to England - The Governor said the ships would stay -50 colonists dressed up as Mohawk Native Americans and dumped the tea overboard -They were very careful that they only damaged property, not the ships and they did not hurt anyone Colonial Actions
British Actions The Intolerable Acts -1774- designed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. 1) Port of Boston shut down 2) Town meetings limited to: one time a year 3) British officials who committed major crimes in the colonies would be: tried in Britain 4) New Quartering Act - colonists could be forced to house troops in their homes.
British Actions Quebec Act - set up a Canadian government -protected rights of French Catholics -gave them lands between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. (Land banned to English colonists by the Proclamation of 1763)
Colonial Actions First Continental Congress -September 1774- representatives from all of the colonies except Georgia met to discuss how to deal with Britain. 1) Backed Massachusetts by: boycotting British goods 2) Set up militia in each colony 3) Agreed to meet again in one year