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Unit 5, Part 4 The Problems with Peace. I.International Peace Efforts a.Organizing the UN April 1945; delegate from 50 nations meet in San Francisco to.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5, Part 4 The Problems with Peace. I.International Peace Efforts a.Organizing the UN April 1945; delegate from 50 nations meet in San Francisco to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5, Part 4 The Problems with Peace

2 I.International Peace Efforts a.Organizing the UN April 1945; delegate from 50 nations meet in San Francisco to charter the UN Charter ratified by Senate July 1945 b.Organization of the UN General Assembly – major legislative organization, each member = 1 vote Security Council; peacekeeping body Secretary General heads the UN International Court of Justice

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4 c.Opposition to the UN “Take the United States out of the UN and the UN out of the United States Senator Joseph McCarthy (Wisconsin) saw it as a resting place for Communist spies d.WWII Refugees One million in Europe in refugee camps Many would be killed if they went “home” others had no homes to go home to UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) established to deal with problem Mrs. Roosevelt – refugees was a human rights issue, not a government issue

5 II.Communist Expansion /Containment in Europe a.Yalta Conference, Feb Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill meet for postwar agreements Stalin agreed for postwar elections is Soviet Bloc countries, but…never happened Russia enters war three month after V-J Day Some charge FDR was too sickly to work out a good deal, but others disagree

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7 b.Potsdam Conference, July-Aug 1945 Truman meets with Stalin & Churchill Issued a declaration calling for the unconditional surrender of Japan…or face utter destruction Democratic government set up in Germany War Crimes trials to begin Zones of occupation set up in Berlin, Germany

8 c.Origins of the Cold War Hostility and tension between the US and USSR, increasing strategic arms build up, at times, became a shooting war Stalin establishes communist regimes in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, threatens the governments of Greece & Turkey Containment – US attempts to stop the spread of Communism in Eastern Europe Iron Curtain – The ideological wall of separation between NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations

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12 d.The Truman Doctrine Harry S. Truman concerned about the 13,000 Communist lead guerillas that entered Greece and Turkey “I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” Harry S. Truman Asks for $400 billion to help Greece and Turkey America continues to aid any country resisting the Communist influence

13 e.The Berlin Crisis (airlift) Berlin divided into East and West after WWII Stalin determined to oust the Western leadership, blockades supply routes into West Berlin For almost 1 year, allied forces flew supplies into West Berlin Over 2 million tons of food, 100 million miles flown to supply the closed off city

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17 F.NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (April 4, 1949) “Hot War” narrowly averted in Berlin A pledge of collective support from Western democracies US, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, UK. An attack on one, was an attack on all

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19 g.The Warsaw Pact (1955) United the Soviet Union with six allies in Eastern Europe – Poland, East Germany, Bulgaria Czechoslovakia & Hungary, Romania h.USSR explodes an A-Bomb September 22, 1949, Truman announces the Soviets have detonated an A-bomb Begins widespread build up of arms and US forces across Europe

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21 I.The Cold War gets “Hot” North Korea attacks South Korea Allege an attack from the South UN (15 nations) and US troops dispatched to South Korea Gen. Douglas MacArthur drives into North Korea, but right into a trap with “Chinese Volunteers”, pushed back into South Korea MacArthur drove the North back and wanted to invade China But a war with China would leave Europe open for Soviet expansion

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23 j.True Civilian Control of the Military Truman decides invading China, not the right move, MacArthur appeals to Congress, also wanted to help nationalist Chiang Kai-shek’s forces retake mainland China Truman Fires MacArthur Truman says we are trying to prevent a third world war, fighting a limited war This war still going on, just an armistice, settle on the 38 th Parallel July 27, 1953, actual peace treaty never signed

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25 The End of Part 4


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