Presentation on theme: "The Cold War A war that is fought with ideas and money instead of soldiers and weapons."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War A war that is fought with ideas and money instead of soldiers and weapons
After WWII- Western Europe The Allied armies (U.S., Britain, France): –freed all nations in western Europe that were conquered by Germany. –helped the countries recover from war. form new governments money to rebuild their cities –left Europe.
After WWII- Eastern Europe Soviet Union troops: –moved into Eastern Europe and didn’t leave. stayed in Poland, Romania, Hungary, and eastern half of Germany –set up their political system there. Communism- Government owns factories, natural resources, and controls the production of goods; people are NOT free. –Stalin felt that he had to protect the Soviet Union. –He said freely elected government was anti-Soviet and could not be allowed.
Iron Curtain Winston Churchill, leader of Britain, said an iron curtain had fallen across Europe. –There was a dividing line between eastern and western Europe. People could not leave the East. The Soviets also blocked all highway, rail and water routes into West Berlin. –It was a challenge. –Stalin hoped to run the other Allies out of Berlin by cutting off routes for food and other supplies.
Berlin Airlift The Soviet blockade failed! –Instead of using land and water to move supplies, the other Allies used planes to deliver food and supplies to West Berlin. 321 days- 272,000 flights June 1949- The Soviet Union gave up the blockade.
The Berlin Wall Many people tried to leave East Germany during this time. –East Germany’s government built a fence to keep this from happening. –The fence was replaced by a concrete wall that was guarded by soldiers. –It is one of the best known symbols of the Cold War. –A division between the free world and communism.
Japan after WWII Allied forces remained in Japan. –Most were American. –They disarmed the Japanese military. –Stayed to help change the government to a democracy. –Japan signed a treaty: If they gave up their overseas empire, they could rebuild their military. Some U.S. troops stayed to help new government. It took almost 10 years for Japan to recover. Relations between U.S. and Japan improved. –important trading partners –became allies
The Korean War Korea was divided after WWII. –North Korea=Soviet Union- communism –South Korea=United States- democracy Both sides were supposed to leave once an election set up a new government. –The Soviet Union refused to leave, and the election never happened. 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea –U.S. and United Nations sent troops to help keep communism out of the country. –They tried to take over North Korea, but the Communist country of China attacked and killed many soldiers. –The war ended in a stalemate (tie).
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949- 12 nations formed this alliance: –to protect against communism –help each other in case of military attack. –hoped this strong union would help stop the spread of communism. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the U.S. –Other nations have joined the alliance since then.
Joseph McCarthy Wisconsin Senator He said communist spies were in every branch of U.S. government. This caused people to be more afraid of communism. The government investigated these people, and although it wasn’t proven, it ruined many lives. McCarthy became powerful because people were afraid to speak against him. 1954- A U.S. Army lawyer challenged him on TV and many people refused to believe him any longer.
Nikita Khrushchev Political leader from the Soviet Union Made a speech to Western countries like the U.S. –“History is on our side. We will bury you.” Increased fear of communist threat. Led to an “arms race”- Race to build –More weapons –More powerful weapons (Soviets build an atom bomb. U.S. builds the hydrogen bomb.)