Presentation on theme: "January 28, 2014 1.New Seating Chart 2.Unit VI Introduction- The Early Cold War and the 1950’s 3.The Cold War: Introduction Video 4.Vocab: 26.1 The Cold."— Presentation transcript:
January 28, 2014 1.New Seating Chart 2.Unit VI Introduction- The Early Cold War and the 1950’s 3.The Cold War: Introduction Video 4.Vocab: 26.1 The Cold War Begins 5.Midterm Exam and Quarter 2 Grades 6.Current Event due Friday
Unit VI Unit VI The Cold War & the 1950’s (1945-1960) Chapters 26 & 27
26.1 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR Chapter 26 The Cold War Begins 1945-1960
A Clash of Interests Two Superpowers after WWII: USA and the Soviet Union. Relations between the two broke down after WWII. Beyond opposition against Nazi Germany, they had nothing in common. 1945-1990: Rivalry called the Cold War. Struggle between the US and the USSR that spread throughout the world. World-wide clash of capitalism vs. communism…democracy vs. dictatorship Contained everything but war.
Yalta Conference Yalta: Feb.1945: FDR, Stalin, and Churchill met. 1.Established United Nations. 2.Division of Germany into four zones after WWII: France, Britain, Soviet Union and USA. 3.Stalin promised free elections in Soviet occupied countries of Eastern Europe after WWII. 4.Russia’s promise to help US against Japan.
Iron Curtain Eastern European countries Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and East Germany became satellite nations of Soviet Union.
Potsdam Conference Potsdam: Truman, Churchill, Stalin: July, 1945 (Germany has surrendered): Stalin refused to allow free elections in the satellite nations. Stalin also wanted reparation payments from Germany. Truman wanted Germany rebuilt, capitalist, and a democracy. So Germany officially divided in half: West Germany-Democracy and capitalist (controlled by Allies.) East Germany (Communist and controlled by Soviet Union.)
January 29, 2014 1.26.2 Notes (part 1) 2.Video: Berlin Airlift and Alliances 3.26.2 Vocabulary
26.2: Early Cold War Years American policy against communism is containment: keeping communism within its existing borders. Requires full commitment of U.S. economic, political and military power.
Containing Communism 1947: Greece and Turkey battled against communist revolutions. Congress gave $400 million in aid. Truman promised aid to any nation struggling against communism: Truman Doctrine.
MarshallPlan European Recovery Program led by Secretary of State. George Marshall European Recovery Program led by Secretary of State. George Marshall U. S. extended aid to European nations that need it after WWII to fight against hunger, poverty, desperation, etc. U. S. extended aid to European nations that need it after WWII to fight against hunger, poverty, desperation, etc. $13 billion to Western Europe. $13 billion to Western Europe. Aid extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, but Stalin rejected. Aid extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, but Stalin rejected. 2 MAIN motivating factors: 2 MAIN motivating factors: 1.Helping Europe recover economically would provide markets for American goods, benefiting American industry. 2.A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism.
Map of Germany divided into zones after WWII Map of Berlin divided into zones after WWII
Berlin Blockade and Airlift 1948: West Germany became prosperous due to the Marshall Plan. Stalin feared this would hurt Soviet security in East Germany. In 1948, he blocked highway and railway traffic from West Germany to West Berlin. With no way of receiving aid, West Berlin would fall to the USSR. Containment would fail For 1 year, U.S. and Great Britain supplied people of West Berlin through an airlift. Food, fuel, medical supplies, clothing, etc. flown into West Berlin.
Alliances 1949: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Military alliance formed to fight Soviet expansion. Originally consisted of 12 western European and North American countries. Soviet Union and its’ satellite nations formed alliance called Warsaw Pact.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Greece Turkey West Germany
Warsaw Pact }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania
The Korean War 1950-1953 Civil War in China since the 1920’s before Japanese invasion and WWII. Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek. Communists led by Mao Zedong. Civil War continued after WWII. U.S. sent billions to help Nationalists after WWII. But by 1949, Communists captured capital city Beijing. Nationalists fled to Taiwan. Mao Zedong established communist People’s Republic of China in 1949. Containment failed in China. 1950: China signs alliance with Soviet Union.
The Korean War 1950-1953 Japan occupied Korea before and during WWII. After WWII, Allies divide Korea at 38 th parallel. Soviet Union controlled the North; U.S. controlled the South. Communist government in North Korea led by Kim-il Sung. Anti-Communist government in South Korea: Syngman Rhee. Both claimed to be rightful government of Korea. North Korea built large military with help from the Soviet Union. North Korea capital city: Pyongyang. South Korea capital city: Seoul. June, 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea.
The Korean War 1950-1953 Truman ordered U.S. military into action (led UN coalition) Douglas MacArthur commanded U.S. troops in Korea. North Korean military drove American and South Korean forces to Pusan. Americans fought hard trapped at Pusan Perimeter until reinforcements arrived. Sept., 1950: MacArthur ordered surprise invasion at Inchon. North Koreans forced to retreat back across 38 th parallel. MacArthur and Americans soon pushed North Koreans to Yalu River; border with China.
The Korean War 1950-1953 Nov. 1950: China launched attack across Yalu River. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese drove American and UN forces back across 38 th parallel. Truman begins talks of peace settlement. Angers MacArthur: didn’t want to “cut a deal” after so many of his men were killed. He wanted to invade China and use atomic weapons. Truman refused. MacArthur publicly criticized him. April, 1951: Truman fired MacArthur: insubordination. Truman favored limited war: fought with objective of containing communism. Aug.1951- US and UN forces pushed Chinese and North Koreans back across 38 th parallel. War settled down and became stalemate with little fighting for next two years. July, 1953: Armistice (cease fire) signed. Over 35,000 Americans died in battle. 1.5 million Chinese and North Koreans killed.