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Post WWII Developments Foundations of the Cold War Korean War McCarthyism.

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Presentation on theme: "Post WWII Developments Foundations of the Cold War Korean War McCarthyism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Post WWII Developments Foundations of the Cold War Korean War McCarthyism

2 Effects of WWII 60 million dead – 2/3 Europe – 2/3 Civilian 50 million uprooted August, Berlin, 4,000/day were dying

3 Direct War Costs Military KilledCivilians Killed United States $288 billion292,131 X Great Britain$117 billion271,31160,595 France$113 billion205,707173,260 U.S.S.R.$93 billion13,600,0007,720,000 Germany$212.3 billion3,300,0002,893,000 Japan$41.3 billion1,140,429953,000

4 The Cold War Definition: The state of diplomatic hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades following WWII

5 Tensions Before End of WWII U.S. upset that Stalin signed nonaggression pact with Hitler Stalin upset that Allies did not invade German- controlled France earlier

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7 Effects of WWII were very different United States: 400,000 Americans died, but cities and factories in U.S. remained intact Soviet Union: death toll more like 20,000,000 (20 MILLION!, or 50 times more deaths) -1 in 4 Soviets killed or wounded - Many cities were demolished

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9 United States and Soviet Union had different goals following WWII U.S. goals: 1) Encourage democracy in other countries to prevent the rise of communist governments 2) Gain access to raw materials and markets to fuel booming industries 3) Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for American goods 4) Reunite Germany to stabilize it and increase the security of Europe

10 Soviet Union goals: 1)Encourage communism in other countries 2)Rebuild its war-ravaged economy 3)Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders 4)Keep Germany divided to prevent it from waging war again

11 Tensions Mount Soviet Blockade of Berlin and Airlift ( ) Soviets test bomb 1949 “Loss” of China 1949 Korean War ( )

12 Soviets built a wall of satellite nations on their western border to serve as a buffer, or wall of protection. Stalin installed or secured Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia

13 The iron curtain divides Eastern and Western Europe Germany was split into two sections - Soviets controlled East - Allies controlled West

14 Containment To offset Soviet threat, President Truman adopted foreign policy called containment Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and the expansion of communism The U.S. would create alliances and help weak nations resist Soviet advances

15 Truman Doctrine Truman’s support for countries that rejected communism (1947) Congress authorized over $400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece

16 February, 1948 Much of Europe was still in ruins Marshall Plan: U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that America give aid to any European country that needed it.

17 Berlin, just like Germany, was also divided into “zones of occupation” In 1948, France/Britain/U.S. withdrew forces and allowed their zones to form one nation Soviet Union responded by holding West Berlin hostage Cut off highway, water, and rail traffic

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19 Berlin Airlift American and British officials flew food and supplies into West Berlin for 11 months Planes took off and landed every 3 mins 277,000 flights brought in 2.3 million tons of supplies (food, medicine, fuel) Soviets lifted blockade in May, 1949

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24 Rival Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - U.S., Canada, and ten Western European nations formed a defensive military alliance in 1949 Warsaw Pact Alliance system that Soviets developed in response to NATO. Included the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania.

25 Korean War

26 Korean Since the early 1900s, Korea was a Japanese colony After WWII, Korea was divided at the 38 th parallel Japanese troops surrendered to Soviets in the north and to the U.S. in the south On June 25, 1950, the North Koreans launched a surprise attack on South Korea They managed to conquer much of the Korean peninsula within weeks

27 President Truman wanted to help South Korea resist Communist influence (containment) South Korea asked the United Nations to intervene, which they did under the command of General Douglass MacArthur Meanwhile, the North Koreans continued to advance

28 September, 1950: MacArthur launched a surprise attack and the North Koreans retreated UN troops pushed the North Koreans almost to the Chinese border in the north (Yalu River) October, 1950: China sent 300,000 troops to aid North Korea Now, the fight in Korea is between U.S. and China

29 Chinese outnumbered UN forces and drove them southward General MacArthur calls for nuclear attack on Chinese cities Truman refuses out of fear of starting WWIII Over the next 2yrs, UN forces clashed with the North Koreans Cease fire agreement signed in July, million soldiers and civilians had died in 3yrs

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31 After the War, Korea remained divided into two countries North Korea led by Communist dictator Kim Il Sung. - established collective farms - developed heavy industry - built up countries military power His son, Kim Jong Il, is the leader of North Korea today. Under him, North Korea has developed nuclear weapons


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