Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 19 The Cold War (1945–1960) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 19 The Cold War (1945–1960) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle."— Presentation transcript:

1 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 19 The Cold War (1945–1960) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

2 America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: Origins of the Cold War Section 2: The Cold War Heats Up Section 3: The Korean War Section 4: The Continuing Cold War Chapter 19: The Cold War (1945–1960) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

3 Origins of the Cold War Why was 1945 a critical year in United States foreign relations? What were the postwar goals of the United States and the Soviet Union? How did the iron curtain tighten the Soviet Union’s hold over Eastern Europe? How did the Truman Doctrine complement the policy of containment? Chapter 19, Section 1

4 1945—A Critical Year As the end of World War II approached, relations between the Communist Soviet Union and its wartime allies, the United States and Great Britain, grew increasingly tense. At a meeting at Yalta in February, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed on the postwar division of Germany but disagreed on the future of Poland. In April, representatives of 50 countries, including the United States, adopted the charter for the United Nations, an organization dedicated to cooperation in solving international problems. On April 12, Roosevelt died unexpectedly, making Vice President Truman the new President. Truman continued Roosevelt’s negotiations with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference in July. Chapter 19, Section 1

5 Conflicting Postwar Goals American and Soviet Goals American Goals Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war Wanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products Soviet Goals Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the war Wanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination and sympathetic to Soviet goals Wanted to promote the spread of communism throughout the world Chapter 19, Section 1

6 Soviets Tighten Their Hold Communist Expansion in Eastern Europe Albania and Bulgaria: Communists secure control by silencing opposition in Albania; Soviet troops seize Bulgaria. Czechoslovakia: Although it desperately tried to remain democratic, Czechoslovakia became a Soviet satellite nation in Hungary and Romania: By arresting anti-Communist leaders in Hungary and forcing the appointment of a Communist prime minister in Romania, Communists achieved power in both nations. East Germany: To make sure Germany could not threaten his nation again, Stalin established a totalitarian government, naming the state the German Democratic Republic. Finland and Yugoslavia: Both countries maintained their independence from Soviet control – Finland, by signing a treaty of cooperation, and Yugoslavia, by following the leadership of Tito. Chapter 19, Section 1

7 The Iron Curtain Churchill coined the phrase iron curtain to describe the geographic and political divisions between Communist and capitalist nations in Europe. Chapter 19, Section 1

8 Containment and the Truman Doctrine The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for world influence came to be known as the Cold War. The American policy of containment accepted the fact that Eastern Europe was under Communist control, but sought to prevent Communist governments from forming elsewhere in the world. The Truman Doctrine, which applied the principles of containment, stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey. Chapter 19, Section 1

9 Origins of the Cold War—Assessment Which of these choices best describes the primary goal of the United States for postwar Europe? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin Which of these events directly inspired the Truman Doctrine? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 1

10 Origins of the Cold War—Assessment Which of these choices best describes the primary goal of the United States for postwar Europe? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin Which of these events directly inspired the Truman Doctrine? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 1

11 The Cold War Heats Up How did the Marshall Plan, the Berlin airlift, and NATO help to achieve American goals in postwar Europe? How did Communist advances affect American foreign policy? How did the Cold War affect American life at home? Chapter 19, Section 2

12 The Marshall Plan The United States wanted to help European nations recover from the war and become economically strong democracies. It also wanted to prevent Communists from continuing to gain power in Europe. The Marshall Plan was created in 1947 by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall as a means to achieve these goals. According to the Marshall Plan, participating nations would design recovery programs and would receive financial aid from the United States. Seventeen Western European nations joined the plan, receiving a total of $13 billion in aid. Chapter 19, Section 2

13 The Berlin Airlift As part of the postwar division of Germany, the city of Berlin, located in Communist East Germany, was divided into West Berlin (capitalist) and East Berlin (Communist). In June 1948, Stalin banned all shipments to West Berlin through East Germany, creating a blockade which threatened to cut off supplies to the city. In response, Allied nations began the Berlin airlift, which delivered thousands of tons of food and other supplies to West Berlin via air. Although the Soviet blockade ended in May 1949, Berlin remained a focal point of Cold War conflict. Chapter 19, Section 2

14 NATO Why create a treaty organization? Soviet vetoes prevented the United Nations from resolving a number of postwar problems. The United States sought to avoid the problems of post– World War I isolationism. The United States did not want to be the only nation in the Western Hemisphere committed to fighting communism. A Canadian role in the treaty organization would be vital. What was NATO? The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in April In joining NATO, the United States, Canada, and ten Western European nations pledged to support one another against attack, a principle known as collective security. In response, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations. Chapter 19, Section 2

15 Communist Advances The Soviet Atomic Threat In September 1949, Truman announced that the Soviet Union had successfully tested an atomic bomb. In response, the United States began developing the even more powerful hydrogen bomb, reestablishing itself as the world’s leading nuclear power. The newly formed Federal Civil Defense Administration distributed information on how to survive a nuclear attack; this information was ridiculed by experts. China Falls to the Communists During World War II, competing factions in China had cooperated, but fighting between them resumed towards the end of the war. At first, the United States supported Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi against Communist Mao Zedong. However, the United States later decided to focus on Western Europe instead. Many Americans viewed Mao Zedong’s creation of a Communist state in China as a failure of Truman’s policies. Chapter 19, Section 2

16 The Cold War at Home During the late 1940s, fear of Communist spies created a climate of suspicion in the United States. Truman established a federal employee loyalty program in 1947, checking the backgrounds of all new and existing federal employees. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) began investigating Hollywood personalities who the committee claimed, had Communist leanings. When one group, known as the Hollywood Ten, refused to answer HUAC’s questions, they were cited for contempt of Congress and imprisoned. Hollywood studios compiled a blacklist, a list circulated to employers naming persons who should not be hired. Blacklisted individuals came from all sections of the industry and included anyone who seemed subversive. Chapter 19, Section 2

17 The Cold War at Home Fueled by fears of disloyal immigrants from Communist countries, the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act reestablished the immigration quota system from This act discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia and Southern and Central Europe. Two famous spy cases reinforced fears that Soviet spies in the United States were sharing American secrets with foreign Communists. These were the cases of Alger Hiss and of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Chapter 19, Section 2

18 The Cold War Heats Up—Assessment Which of these phrases best describes NATO? (A)A collective security pact between the United States, Canada, and Western European nations (B)A military alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations (C)A U.S.-sponsored program for postwar recovery (D)A regional group within the United Nations Which of these was a result of HUAC’s investigation of the movie industry? (A)Hollywood approved many scripts that dealt with controversial social problems. (B)Many Hollywood personalities were blacklisted. (C)The McCarran-Walter Act was passed. (D)Pro-Soviet movies became popular. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 2

19 The Cold War Heats Up—Assessment Which of these phrases best describes NATO? (A)A collective security pact between the United States, Canada, and Western European nations (B)A military alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations (C)A U.S.-sponsored program for postwar recovery (D)A regional group within the United Nations Which of these was a result of HUAC’s investigation of the movie industry? (A)Hollywood approved many scripts that dealt with controversial social problems. (B)Many Hollywood personalities were blacklisted. (C)The McCarran-Walter Act was passed. (D)Pro-Soviet movies became popular. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 2

20 The Korean War How did Communist expansion in Asia set the stage for the Korean War? Who fought in the Korean War, and what were the three stages of the war? What were the effects of the Korean War? Chapter 19, Section 3

21 Communist Expansion in Asia The Chinese Civil War Civil war began in the mid-1920s and intensified after World War II. Mao Zedong won support for the Communists by redistributing land and offering schooling and healthcare. Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalist Party lost support because of harsh treatment of the population, high taxes, and corruption. When the Communists took power in 1949, the Nationalists fled to Taiwan. The Division of Korea World War II ended before a plan could be made for Korean independence from Japan. Korea was temporarily divided at the thirty-eighth parallel, the latitude line running through approximately the midpoint of the peninsula. A pro-American government formed in South Korea, while a Communist government formed in North Korea. Chapter 19, Section 3

22 The Korean Conflict In June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops invaded South Korea, aiming to reunite the nation by force. A UN resolution, which passed because the Soviets were not there to veto it, called on member states to defend South Korea and restore peace. Roughly 80 percent of the troops who served in the resulting UN police action were American. By attacking North Korean supply lines, General Douglas MacArthur was able to gain an advantage and push north. However, a stalemate developed after China helped the North Koreans push the UN forces back into South Korea. A truce signed in 1953 left Korea again divided near the thirty eighth parallel. Chapter 19, Section 3

23 The Effects of the Korean War Post-Korean War Changes in America Warfare — Limited war, limited victory Integration of the Military — First war in which white Americans and African Americans served in the same units Increased Power of the Military — A military-industrial complex developed as the military established links with the corporate and scientific communities. Foreign Policy in Asia — September 1951 peace treaty signed with Japan; relations worsen with Communist China Chapter 19, Section 3

24 The Korean War—Assessment What was the significance of the thirty-eighth parallel? (A) It formed Korea’s border with China. (B) It was the place to which Chinese Nationalists fled. (C) It divided Korea into two halves, North and South. (D) It was the location of Korean War peace talks. Why did the United Nations send troops to Korea? (A) To support South Korea and restore peace (B) To install a Communist government in South Korea (C) To help China defend its border (D) To put an end to Japanese rule of Korea Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 3

25 The Korean War—Assessment What was the significance of the thirty-eighth parallel? (A) It formed Korea’s border with China. (B) It was the place to which Chinese Nationalists fled. (C) It divided Korea into two halves, North and South. (D) It was the location of Korean War peace talks. Why did the United Nations send troops to Korea? (A) To support South Korea and restore peace (B) To install a Communist government in South Korea (C) To help China defend its border (D) To put an end to Japanese rule of Korea Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 3

26 The Continuing Cold War What were the characteristics of the McCarthy era? How was the Cold War waged in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America during the 1950s? How did the arms race develop? Chapter 19, Section 4

27 The McCarthy Era McCarthy’s Rise to Power Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy, up for reelection raised the specter of Communist conspiracies within the United States. McCarthy produced a list of 250 names of presumed Communist- supporting government employees. Later, when scrutinized, this list was reduced to 57. Although McCarthy’s accusations were usually baseless and unprovable, few were willing to risk their reputations by speaking out against him. McCarthy’s Fall In early 1954, McCarthyism, the name given to McCarthy’s crusade, reached the army. Democrats asked that the hearings between McCarthy and the army be televised, hoping to swing popular opinion against McCarthy. By mid-June 1954, McCarthy had lost even his strongest supporters. The Senate formally condemned him for his actions. Chapter 19, Section 4

28 The Cold War in the 1950s United States involvement around the world, 1947–1956 Eastern Europe — Wary of war with the Soviets, America did not support uprisings in East Germany, Poland, and Hungary. Southeast Asia — Korean War ends; former French colony of Vietnam is divided into Communist North and anti- Communist South. Middle East — United States supports Israel, backs groups that restore a pro-American Shah in Iran; the Suez Crisis in Egypt erupts. Latin America — Organization of American States (OAS) is created; American aid helps anti-Communist leaders gain and retain power. Chapter 19, Section 4

29 The Arms Race Throughout the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in an arms race, a struggle to gain weapons superiority. Deterrence, the policy of maintaining a military arsenal so strong that no enemy will attack for fear of retaliation, resulted in the escalating development of powerful nuclear weapons. The American policy of brinkmanship involved bringing the United States to the brink of war without actually entering into war. Chapter 19, Section 4

30 The Arms Race in the Skies To carry bombs to their targets, the Soviet Union developed long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs. In 1957, one of these rockets was used to launch the Soviet satellite Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth. When a Soviet guided missile shot down an American U-2 spy plane, the resulting U-2 incident shattered American confidence and prompted a desire to match—and surpass—Soviet weapons technology. Chapter 19, Section 4

31 The Continuing Cold War—Assessment Why did the United States choose not to support uprisings in Eastern Europe? (A)It appeared that these uprisings would succeed on their own. (B)The Soviet Union supported the uprisings. (C)Senator McCarthy was against such support. (D)Eisenhower felt that doing so would risk war with the Soviets. What was the significance of the U-2 incident? (A)It motivated the United States to increase the technological development of its military. (B)It provided the first test of Soviet ICBMs. (C)It led to the development of the hydrogen bomb. (D)It began the Cold War. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 4

32 The Continuing Cold War—Assessment Why did the United States choose not to support uprisings in Eastern Europe? (A)It appeared that these uprisings would succeed on their own. (B)The Soviet Union supported the uprisings. (C)Senator McCarthy was against such support. (D)Eisenhower felt that doing so would risk war with the Soviets. What was the significance of the U-2 incident? (A)It motivated the United States to increase the technological development of its military. (B)It provided the first test of Soviet ICBMs. (C)It led to the development of the hydrogen bomb. (D)It began the Cold War. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 19, Section 4


Download ppt "America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 19 The Cold War (1945–1960) Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google