2 The Korean War - Objectives How did Communist expansion in Asia set the stage for the Korean War?Who fought in the Korean War, and what were the three stages of the war?What were the effects of the Korean War?
3 Communist Expansion in Asia The Chinese Civil WarCivil war began China in the mid-1920s and intensified after World War II.Mao Zedong won support for the Communists by redistributing land and offering schooling and healthcare.Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalist Party lost support because of harsh treatment of the population, high taxes, and corruption.When the Communists took power in 1949, the Nationalists fled to Taiwan.
4 Communist Expansion in Asia The Division of KoreaJapan had controlled Korea for much of the first half of the 20th century.World War II ended before a plan could be made for Korean independence from Japan.Korea was temporarily divided at the thirty-eighth parallel, the latitude line running through approximately the midpoint of the peninsula.A pro-American government formed in South Korea, while a Communist government formed in North Korea.
5 The Korean ConflictIn June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops invaded South Korea, aiming to reunite the nation by force.The U.S. mistakenly thought the invasion by N. Korea was initiated by the Soviet UnionA UN resolution, which passed because the Soviets were not there to veto it, called on member states to defend South Korea and restore peace.Of the 16 UN countries involved, about 80% of the troops who served in the UN police action were American.
6 The Korean ConflictThe North Koreans, using Soviet tanks and aircraft, swept through most of South Korea in a few weeks.General Douglas MacArthur was in charge and felt that the N. Korean advance had stretched their supply lines thin.By attacking supply lines behind the N. Korean front lines, MacArthur was able to gain an advantage and push the invaders north to the border of ChinaHowever, a stalemate developed after China helped the N. Koreans push the UN forces back into South Korea.
8 The Korean ConflictMacArthur wanted to break the stalemate by opening a second front by attacking China.Truman disagreed, fearing the war would grow into a larger war in Asia.MacArthur publicly disagreed and was firedA truce signed in 1953 left Korea again divided near the thirty eighth parallel – about where it started!
9 The Effects of the Korean War Warfare — Limited war, limited victoryIntegration of the Military — First war in which white Americans and African Americans served in the same unitsIncreased Power of the Military — A military-industrial complex developed as the military established links with the corporate and scientific communities.Foreign Policy in Asia — September 1951 peace treaty signed with Japan; relations worsen with Communist China