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UNIT 8 Chapter 26 – The Cold War Chapter 29 – The Kennedy & Johnson Years THE COLD WAR.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 8 Chapter 26 – The Cold War Chapter 29 – The Kennedy & Johnson Years THE COLD WAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 8 Chapter 26 – The Cold War Chapter 29 – The Kennedy & Johnson Years THE COLD WAR

2 Presidents of the United States George Washington; Federalist (1788) John Adams; Federalist (1796) Thomas Jefferson (1800) James Madison (1808) James Monroe (1816) John Quincy Adams (1824) Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828) Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836) William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840) John Tyler; Whig (1841) James K. Polk; Democrat (1844) Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848) Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850) Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852) James Buchanan; Democrat (1856) Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860) Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865) Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868) Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876) James Garfield; Republican (1880) #21 - …  Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884)  Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892)  William McKinley; Republican (1896)  Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901)  William Howard Taft; Republican (1908)  Woodrow Wilson; Democrat (1912)  Warren G. Harding; Republican (1920)  Calvin Coolidge; Republican (1923)  Herbert Hoover; Republican (1928)  Franklin D. Roosevelt; Democrat (1932)  Harry S. Truman; Democrat (1945)  Dwight D. Eisenhower; Republican (1952)  John F. Kennedy; Democrat (1960)  Lyndon B. Johnson; Democrat (1963)

3 America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: Origins of the Cold War Section 2: The Cold War Heats Up Section 3: The Korean War Section 4: The Continuing Cold War Chapter 26: The Cold War (1945–1960)

4 CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the origins of the Cold War and evaluate the presidential foreign policies during the Cold War. – Objective 8.1: How did the differing postwar goals of the Soviet Union and the United States lead to the Cold War? – Objective 8.2: How did the goals of containment influence events in the late 1940’s? – Objective 8.3: Explain the Causes and effects of the Korean War. – Objective 8.4: Describe characteristics of the McCarthy Era. – Objective 8.5: Describe the domestic programs pursued by President Kennedy. – Objective 8.6: Describe the foreign policy Cold War crises that occurred during Kennedy’s presidency. – Objective 8.7: Explain the goals and effects of President Johnson’s domestic programs.

5 CHAPTER 26 SECTION 1 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR The United States foreign policy changed slowly from neutrality to strong support for the Allies and then to our eventual entry into the war.

6 1945 — A Critical Year As the end of World War II approached, relations between the Communist Soviet Union and its wartime allies, the United States and Great Britain, grew increasingly tense. As the end of World War II approached, relations between the Communist Soviet Union and its wartime allies, the United States and Great Britain, grew increasingly tense. At a meeting at Yalta in February, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed on the postwar division of Germany but disagreed on the future of Poland. At a meeting at Yalta in February, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed on the postwar division of Germany but disagreed on the future of Poland. In April 1945, representatives of 50 countries, including the United States, adopted the charter for the United Nations, an organization dedicated to cooperation in solving international problems. In April 1945, representatives of 50 countries, including the United States, adopted the charter for the United Nations, an organization dedicated to cooperation in solving international problems. On April 12, Roosevelt died unexpectedly, making Vice President Truman the new President. On April 12, Roosevelt died unexpectedly, making Vice President Truman the new President. Truman continued Roosevelt’s negotiations with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference in July. Truman continued Roosevelt’s negotiations with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference in July. At Potsdam Conference (1945) Truman and Stalin disagree over the future of Poland. At Potsdam Conference (1945) Truman and Stalin disagree over the future of Poland.

7 Conflicting Goals American Goals Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war Wanted to develop strong capitalist democracies, which would provide good markets for American products Wanted to develop strong capitalist democracies, which would provide good markets for American products Soviet Goals Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the war Established satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination and sympathetic to Soviet goals Wanted to spread communism throughout the world

8 Soviets Tighten Their Hold Communist Expansion in Eastern Europe Albania and Bulgaria: Communists secure control by silencing opposition in Albania; Soviet troops seize Bulgaria. Albania and Bulgaria: Communists secure control by silencing opposition in Albania; Soviet troops seize Bulgaria. Czechoslovakia: Although it desperately tried to remain democratic, Czechoslovakia became a Soviet satellite nation in Czechoslovakia: Although it desperately tried to remain democratic, Czechoslovakia became a Soviet satellite nation in Hungary and Romania: By arresting anti-Communist leaders in Hungary and forcing the appointment of a Communist prime minister in Romania, Communists achieved power in both nations. Hungary and Romania: By arresting anti-Communist leaders in Hungary and forcing the appointment of a Communist prime minister in Romania, Communists achieved power in both nations. East Germany: To make sure Germany could not threaten his nation again, Stalin established a totalitarian government, naming the state the German Democratic Republic. East Germany: To make sure Germany could not threaten his nation again, Stalin established a totalitarian government, naming the state the German Democratic Republic. Finland and Yugoslavia: Both countries maintained their independence from Soviet control – Finland, by signing a treaty of cooperation, and Yugoslavia, by following the leadership of Tito. Finland and Yugoslavia: Both countries maintained their independence from Soviet control – Finland, by signing a treaty of cooperation, and Yugoslavia, by following the leadership of Tito.

9 The Iron Curtain Churchill coined the phrase iron curtain to describe the divisions between Communist and capitalist nations in Europe.

10 Containment The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for world influence came to be known as the Cold War. The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for world influence came to be known as the Cold War. The American policy of containment accepted the fact that Eastern Europe was under Communist control, but sought to prevent Communist governments from forming elsewhere in the world. The American policy of containment accepted the fact that Eastern Europe was under Communist control, but sought to prevent Communist governments from forming elsewhere in the world. The Truman Doctrine, which is a policy of containment, stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine, which is a policy of containment, stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey.

11 Origins of the Cold War— Assessment Which of these choices best describes the primary goal of the United States for postwar Europe? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin Which of these events directly inspired the Truman Doctrine? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech

12 Origins of the Cold War— Assessment Which of these choices best describes the primary goal of the United States for postwar Europe? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin Which of these events directly inspired the Truman Doctrine? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech

13 Vocabulary Assessment Which one of these words would most accurately describe collective security? (A) Protect the Soviet Union from future invasion (B) Build economically strong democracies (C) Add more members to the United Nations (D) Ensure further cooperation with Stalin How was deterrence carried out during the Cold War? (A) Soviet threats in Greece and Turkey (B) The division of Germany into four zones (C) The arrest of anti-Communist leaders in Hungary (D) Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech


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