3Joints of should girdle Sternoclavicular jointBones: sternal end of clavicle, clavicular notch of sternum, and first costal cartilageArticular capsule: strong and is reinforced by anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligamentsArticular disc: attached to the capsule, dividing the joint into two cavities.Movements: elevation and depression, forward and backward, rotation and circumduction of the acromial end of the clavicle
4Joints of should girdle CoracoacromialligamentAcromioclavicular jointBones: acromion and acromial end of clavicleMovement: rotation of scapula on clavicleCoracoacromial archCompositioncoracoacromial ligamentcoranoid processAcromionPrevents the shoulder joint from superior dislocationAcromionCoranoid process
6★Shoulder joint Type: ball and socket Bones: head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapulaCapsule:Thin and lax, especially lower partAttachments: proximal to glenoid labrum; distal to anatomical neck of humerus, except medially where it is slightly distal to surgical neckTendon of long head of biceps brachii passes though the cavity
7★Shoulder jointTendon of long headof biceps brachii
8★Shoulder joint Accessory structures Glenoid labrum : fibrocartilaginous ring on periphery of glenoid cavityCoracohumeral ligament : runs from coracoid process to greater tubercleMovements: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction
9Radiograph of shoulder in a young female of 18 years in anteroposterior view (A) and axillary view with the arm abducted (B).
12★ Elbow jointBones: lower end of humerus, upper ends of radius and ulnaHumeroulnar joint :formed by trochlear of humerus and troclear noch (hinge)Humeroradial joint :formed by capitulum of humerus and head of radius (ball and socket)Proximal radioulnar joint : formed by articular circumference of radius and radial notch of ulnaCapsule: thin and lax anteriorly and posteriorly, strongly thickened on either side by collateral ligaments
13★ Elbow joint Ligaments: Radial collacteral ligament : attached to lateral epicondyle and annular ligament of radiusUlnar collacteral ligament : attached to medial epicondyle to medial border of trochlear notchAnnular ligament of radius : attached to anterior and posterior margins of radial notch of ulna, surrounds the head of radiusMovements: flexion and extension, pronation and supination
15Anteroposterior (A) and lateral (B) radiographs of an adult elbow joint. The joint is semiflexed in B.
16In extension, the medial and lateral epicondyles and the top of the olecranon process are in a straight line;in flexion, the bony point form the boundaries of an equilateral triangle.
17Joints between radius and ulna Proximal radioulnar jointInterosseous membrane of forearm: a fibrous membrane between the shaft of radius and ulnaDistal radioulnar joint formed by head of ulna, ulnar notch of radius and an articular disc
18Joints of hand ★ Radiocarpal joint (ellipsoid) Bones Carpal articular surface of radius and articular disc below the ulnaProximal row of carpal: scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones, but not pisiformCapsule: lax and strengthened by surrounding ligamentMovements: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction
19Joints of hand Intercarpal joints Carpometacarpal joints Carpometacarpal joint of thumbBones: trapezium and base of first metacarpalMovement: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and oppositionIntermetacarpal jointsMetacarpophalangeal jointsInterphalangeal joints
20Joints of hand Intermetacarpal joints 腕骨间关节 Metacarpophalangeal joints 掌指关节Interphalangeal joints 指间关节
22Joints of pelvic girdle Sacroiliac jointBones: auricular surface of sacrum and iliumCapsule: very tight and strengthened by ligaments
23Ligaments of the gluteal region Sacrotuberous ligamentConnects the lateral margins of sacrum and coccyx to the ischial tuberositySacrospinous ligamentConnects the lateral margins of sacrum and coccyx to the spine of the ischium
24Foramina of the gluteal region Greater sciatic foramenFormed by the greater sciatic notch of the hip bone and the sacrospinous ligament.It provides an exit from the pelvis into the gluteal region.Lesser sciatic foramenFormed by the lesser sciatic notch of the ischium and the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments.It provides an entrance into the perineum from the gluteal region
25Joints of pelvic girdle Pubic symphysisArticulation: symphysial surface and interpubic disc (fibrocartilage)Ligaments: superior pubic ligament and arcuate pubic ligamentObturator membraneObturator canal
26Bony pelvisComposition: formed by paired hip bones, sacrum, coccyx, and their articulationsIn anatomical position: anterior superior iliac spines and pubic tubercles on same vertical plane, while the tip of coccyx and superior border of pubic symphysis on same horizontal planeTerminal line: formed by promontory of sacrum, arcuate line, pecten of pubis, pubic tubercle, upper border of pubic symphysisTwo portions:greater pelvislesser pelvis
27Bony pelvis Lesser pelvis pelvic inlet (terminal line): Pelvic outlet : formed by tip of coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament, ischial tuberosity, ramus of ischium, inferior ramus of pubic, symphysisPelvic cavityPubic archsubpubic angle
28Main difference between male and femal pelvis FemaleMaleOverallWide and shortNarrow and longIliac alaMore horizontalMore verticalInletRoundOval or heart shapedOutletLargerSmallPelvic cavityShallower, wideDeep narrowSubpubic angleRight angle (90~1000)Acute angle (70~750)
29Main difference between male and femal pelvis FemaleMalePelvic inletPelvic outetPelvic cavityPubic arch90~100070~750
36★ Hip joint Bones: acetabulum and femoral head Articular capsule attachmentsAbove: margins of acetabulum and transverse acetebular ligamentBelow: in front to intertrochanteric line; behind, to the neck of femur above 1 cm above the intertrochanteric crest
37★ Hip joint Accessory structures Acetabulum labrum ; transverse acetebular ligamentLigamentsIliofemoral lig.Ligament of head of femurPubofemoral lig.Ischiofemoral ligamentZona orbicularisMovement: flexion, extention, adduction, abduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumductionAcetabulum labrumTransverseacetebular lig.Ligament of head of femur
38★ Hip joint Ischiofemoral lig. Zona orbicularis Pubofemoral lig. Iliofemoral lig.Ischiofemoral lig.Zona orbicularis
48Tibiofibular syndesmosis Tibiofibular jointCrural interosseous membraneAnterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments
49Joint of foot Talocrural joint (ankle joint ) Bones: lower ends of tibia and fibula, trochlea of talusArticular capsule: thin and lax in front and behind, and supported on each side by strong collateral ligamentsLigmentsMedial lig.Lateral lig.Anterior talofibular lig.Calcaneofibular lig.Posterior talofibular lig.
53Joint of foot Intertarsal joints Talocalcaneal joint Talocalcaneonavicular jointCalcaneocuboid jointTarsometatarsal jointsIntermetatarsal jointsMetatarsophalangeal jointsInterphalangeal jointsInversion and eversion of foottransverse tarsal joint
54Arches of footMedial longitudinal arch formed by calcaneus, talus, navicular, three cuneiforms and first to third metatarsal bones, head of talus is the keystone of this archLateral longitudinal arch:formed by calcaneus, cuboid, fourth and fifth metatarsals; cuboid is is the keystone of this arch
55Arches of foot Tranverse arch: formed by cuboid, three cuniforms and all metatarsals; the intermediate cuneiform is the keystone of this archFunction: give to foot strength stability and resilience; protect plantar vessels and nerves