Presentation on theme: "THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRENCH"— Presentation transcript:
1THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRENCH ABSOLUTISMUnlike other areas of Europe,the French monarchyhad imposed a kind of unity on Francewould act as a unit in foreign affairs –wars, treaties, etc…however, since France was so large byStandards of the day (3x the size ofEngland, 5x more people), local influencewas strongHenry II ( )Francis I ( )2/5 of the aristocracy was HuguenotThe French monarchy (Francis I and Henry II) opposed Calvinismbecause it seemed to threaten the monarchy and the concept of nationallyestablished church1559, Henry II killed in jousting tournament – by 1562, The French Wars of Religion hadbroken out ( )
2Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre: 1572
3Religious Wars St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Huguenots slaughtered by CatholicsCatherine de Medici’s daughter marring Huguenot prince – Henry of NavarreMost nobles died, Henry survivesHenry IV – Had to Rebuild FrancePressured into converting to CatholicismTries to help France moreEdict of Nantes“Declared Huguenots could live in peace in France”Some liked him (peace) some didn’t (religion)Assassinated – Stabbed in a carriage
4politiques gradually emerged in France no doctrine justifies warHenry of Navarre, was really a politiquewanted to establish power necessary to end disorder –from this chaos came the idea ofabsolutism in France1589: Henry of Navarre crowned Henry IV"Paris is well worth a Mass."Edict of Nantesgave freedom of worship in towns where was prevalentpromised Protestants same civil rights,same chance for public office, and access to universitiesgave them about 100 fortified towns
5Louis XIII Henry IV’s son – Weak ruler Appointed Cardinal Richelieu (RISH•uh•loo)Real Ruler of FranceTook Action vs. Protestants – No WallsNo More Castles for NoblesIncreased Power of Gov’t Agents – Middle ClassWanted World Power – Hapsburgs (Powerful Family)Gets Involved in the Thirty Years’ War
6CARDINAL RICHELIEU Henry IV assassinated in 1610 Henry’s son, Louis XIII, was too young to ruleAffairs run by Catholic cardinal:CARDINAL RICHELIEUResponsible for increasing the power ofthe French monarchy:Encouraged nobility to tradeMade it possible for merchants to buy titles ofnobilityFounded commercial trading companiesProhibited private warfare and ordereddestruction of all fortified castles
7Louis XIII died in 1643Cardinal Mazarin ruled, asLouis XIV was too young to rule
8Louis XIV’s Reign Most Powerful Ruler in French History 14-years old Cardinal Mazarin (Maz•uh•RAN)Ended the Thirty Years’ War Taxes & Strengthened Cent. Gov’tMany People Hated Him for This (Nobles)Attempt a Rebellion, but Fail1 – Distrusted leaders more than Mazarin2 – Violent Repression3 – Peasants Hated Fighting – Alternative (Rebellion) Was WorseKey to Who Louis is…
9Louis XIV: “The Sun King” believed in “Divine Right”“L’etat, c’est moi”What were the most importantsteps Louis XIV took toincrease the power of theFrench Monarchy?Gaining control of the army?Establishing a large civilAdministration (intendants)?Colbert’s economic policies?Revocation of the Edict ofNantes?“Awe the people withgrandeur” -- Versailles?
11Colbert Tax Breaks and $$ to French Companies Very High Tariffs Encouraged French Colonies in CanadaAfter Colbert’s Death, Louis Repeals Edict of NantesThousands of Huguenots Flee Country (Skilled Workers & Businessmen)
12A Day With the Sun KingReferring to Louis XIV, the Duc de Saint-Simon wrote, 'with an almanac and a watch, even at a distance of three hundred leagues, you could say precisely what he was doing'. A king's day had to be perfectly timed so that the officers serving the monarch knew exactly what they should do, when, and how. The court was regulated like clockwork.Levee 8.30 am: 'It is time, Sire', declares the First Valet de Chambre, waking the king. The levee, or ceremonial rising, thus begins. Doctors, family and a few favoured friends successively enter the King's Bedchamber where he is washed, combed, andÑevery other dayÑshaven. The Officers of the Chamber and the Wardrobe then enter in turn for full levee, during which the king is dressed and has a breakfast of broth. The most important officials of the kingdom are admitted; it is estimated that the usual number of people attending numbered one hundred, all male. Mass 10 am: On leaving the king's apartment, a procession forms in the Hall of Mirrors. The king leads the procession of courtiers through the Grand Apartment. The public can now see the king and even petition him with a written request. In the Chapel Royal, the king occupies the tribune. Mass lasts roughly thirty minutes. The choir known as the Chapel Music, famous throughout Europe, always sings new music composed by Lully, Lalande, and others.Council 11 am: Returning to his apartments, the king holds council in his cabinet. Sundays and Wednesdays are devoted to Councils of State; on Tuesdays and Saturdays, finances are dealt with; Mondays, Thursdays and Fridays, another Council of State might replace a Dispatch Council (domestic affairs) or Religious Council, or perhaps the king will decide to focus on his building programme. Five or six ministers usually advise the monarch who speaks little, listens a great deal, and always decides.Dinner 1 pm: The king dines alone in his bedchamber, at a table facing the windows. This meal is theoretically private, but Louis XIV admits the men at court, making attendance similar to the levee.Promenade or Hunting 2 pm: The king always announces the afternoon programme in the morning. If he has decided on a promenade, it might be taken on foot in the gardens or in a carriage with ladies. On the other hand, hunting activities the Bourbons' favourite pastime will take place on the grounds (if the king goes shooting) or in the surrounding forests (riding to hounds).Social Gathering or Work 6 pm: Louis XIV often leaves his son to preside over the private social gatherings known as soirées d'appartement. The king himself might sign the many letters prepared by his secretary, then go to Madame de Maintenon's quarters where he might study an important file with one of his four secretaries of state.Supper 10 pm: A crowd fills the antechamber of the King's Suite to witness this public supper. The king is joined at table by the princes and princesses of the royal family. Once the meal is over, the king returns to his bedchamber to say 'goodnight ladies' then retires to his cabinet where he can indulge in conversation with his close acquaintances.Couchee pm: The couchee, or public ritual of retiring, is a reverse, shortened version of the levee. The Sun King's daily timetable was incumbent on Louis XV and Louis XVI, but neither of them could bear court ceremonial. They tended to flee to their private apartments or smaller chateaus nearby. Levees and couchees became increasingly rare, as did public suppers. Courtiers complained that the king was nowhere to be seen.“A Day With the Sun King.” <http://www.chateauversailles.fr/en/311_A_Day_with_the_Sun_King.php.>.
13The Sun King Keeps Nobles at Versailles Changes Art Keeps Power With IntendantsGrand Style – Showed Wealth and PowerChanges ArtNo Longer to Glorify God – Middle AgesNo Longer to Glorify Human Potential – RenaissanceGlorify King and Absolute Rule
18Succession Charles II of Spain – childless Promise throne to Philip of AnjouLouis XIV’s GrandsonHUGE powerWar of the Spanish Succession“War when England, Austria, Dutch Rep., Portugal, German and Italian states try to prevent union of French and Spanish throne.”1714 – Treaty of UtrechtPhilip can keep the throne, but can’t be unitedBritain gets Gibraltar – Mediterranean entrance
19War of Spanish Succession What finally turned people against Louis XIV were his costly and destructive warsWar of Spanish SuccessionBegan when Louis’ grandson inherited the Spanish thronewas a threat to the balance of power of Europeleft France with a huge debt
20Louis’ Death Sad years, apologized to people Cheered his death Mixed legacyTimes of great powerMilitary leader of EuropeWarfareVersailles – debtAbuse of powerHis ideas did not die however…Prussia and Austria on deck…