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THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRENCH

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1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRENCH
ABSOLUTISM Unlike other areas of Europe,the French monarchy had imposed a kind of unity on France would act as a unit in foreign affairs – wars, treaties, etc… however, since France was so large by Standards of the day (3x the size of England, 5x more people), local influence was strong Henry II ( ) Francis I ( ) 2/5 of the aristocracy was Huguenot The French monarchy (Francis I and Henry II) opposed Calvinism because it seemed to threaten the monarchy and the concept of nationally established church 1559, Henry II killed in jousting tournament – by 1562, The French Wars of Religion had broken out ( )

2 Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV)
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre: 1572

3 Religious Wars St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Huguenots slaughtered by Catholics Catherine de Medici’s daughter marring Huguenot prince – Henry of Navarre Most nobles died, Henry survives Henry IV – Had to Rebuild France Pressured into converting to Catholicism Tries to help France more Edict of Nantes “Declared Huguenots could live in peace in France” Some liked him (peace) some didn’t (religion) Assassinated – Stabbed in a carriage

4 politiques gradually emerged in France
no doctrine justifies war Henry of Navarre, was really a politique wanted to establish power necessary to end disorder – from this chaos came the idea of absolutism in France 1589: Henry of Navarre crowned Henry IV "Paris is well worth a Mass." Edict of Nantes gave freedom of worship in towns where was prevalent promised Protestants same civil rights, same chance for public office, and access to universities gave them about 100 fortified towns

5 Louis XIII Henry IV’s son – Weak ruler
Appointed Cardinal Richelieu (RISH•uh•loo) Real Ruler of France Took Action vs. Protestants – No Walls No More Castles for Nobles Increased Power of Gov’t Agents – Middle Class Wanted World Power – Hapsburgs (Powerful Family) Gets Involved in the Thirty Years’ War

6 CARDINAL RICHELIEU Henry IV assassinated in 1610
Henry’s son, Louis XIII, was too young to rule Affairs run by Catholic cardinal: CARDINAL RICHELIEU Responsible for increasing the power of the French monarchy: Encouraged nobility to trade Made it possible for merchants to buy titles of nobility Founded commercial trading companies Prohibited private warfare and ordered destruction of all fortified castles

7 Louis XIII died in 1643 Cardinal Mazarin ruled, as Louis XIV was too young to rule

8 Louis XIV’s Reign Most Powerful Ruler in French History 14-years old
Cardinal Mazarin (Maz•uh•RAN) Ended the Thirty Years’ War  Taxes & Strengthened Cent. Gov’t Many People Hated Him for This (Nobles) Attempt a Rebellion, but Fail 1 – Distrusted leaders more than Mazarin 2 – Violent Repression 3 – Peasants Hated Fighting – Alternative (Rebellion) Was Worse Key to Who Louis is…

9 Louis XIV: “The Sun King”
believed in “Divine Right” “L’etat, c’est moi” What were the most important steps Louis XIV took to increase the power of the French Monarchy? Gaining control of the army? Establishing a large civil Administration (intendants)? Colbert’s economic policies? Revocation of the Edict of Nantes? “Awe the people with grandeur” -- Versailles?

10 Jean Baptiste Colbert

11 Colbert Tax Breaks and $$ to French Companies Very High Tariffs
Encouraged French Colonies in Canada After Colbert’s Death, Louis Repeals Edict of Nantes Thousands of Huguenots Flee Country (Skilled Workers & Businessmen)

12 A Day With the Sun King Referring to Louis XIV, the Duc de Saint-Simon wrote, 'with an almanac and a watch, even at a distance of three hundred leagues, you could say precisely what he was doing'. A king's day had to be perfectly timed so that the officers serving the monarch knew exactly what they should do, when, and how. The court was regulated like clockwork. Levee 8.30 am: 'It is time, Sire', declares the First Valet de Chambre, waking the king. The levee, or ceremonial rising, thus begins. Doctors, family and a few favoured friends successively enter the King's Bedchamber where he is washed, combed, andÑevery other dayÑshaven. The Officers of the Chamber and the Wardrobe then enter in turn for full levee, during which the king is dressed and has a breakfast of broth. The most important officials of the kingdom are admitted; it is estimated that the usual number of people attending numbered one hundred, all male. Mass 10 am: On leaving the king's apartment, a procession forms in the Hall of Mirrors. The king leads the procession of courtiers through the Grand Apartment. The public can now see the king and even petition him with a written request. In the Chapel Royal, the king occupies the tribune. Mass lasts roughly thirty minutes. The choir known as the Chapel Music, famous throughout Europe, always sings new music composed by Lully, Lalande, and others. Council 11 am: Returning to his apartments, the king holds council in his cabinet. Sundays and Wednesdays are devoted to Councils of State; on Tuesdays and Saturdays, finances are dealt with; Mondays, Thursdays and Fridays, another Council of State might replace a Dispatch Council (domestic affairs) or Religious Council, or perhaps the king will decide to focus on his building programme. Five or six ministers usually advise the monarch who speaks little, listens a great deal, and always decides. Dinner 1 pm: The king dines alone in his bedchamber, at a table facing the windows. This meal is theoretically private, but Louis XIV admits the men at court, making attendance similar to the levee. Promenade or Hunting 2 pm: The king always announces the afternoon programme in the morning. If he has decided on a promenade, it might be taken on foot in the gardens or in a carriage with ladies. On the other hand, hunting activities the Bourbons' favourite pastime will take place on the grounds (if the king goes shooting) or in the surrounding forests (riding to hounds). Social Gathering or Work 6 pm: Louis XIV often leaves his son to preside over the private social gatherings known as soirées d'appartement. The king himself might sign the many letters prepared by his secretary, then go to Madame de Maintenon's quarters where he might study an important file with one of his four secretaries of state. Supper 10 pm: A crowd fills the antechamber of the King's Suite to witness this public supper. The king is joined at table by the princes and princesses of the royal family. Once the meal is over, the king returns to his bedchamber to say 'goodnight ladies' then retires to his cabinet where he can indulge in conversation with his close acquaintances. Couchee pm: The couchee, or public ritual of retiring, is a reverse, shortened version of the levee. The Sun King's daily timetable was incumbent on Louis XV and Louis XVI, but neither of them could bear court ceremonial. They tended to flee to their private apartments or smaller chateaus nearby. Levees and couchees became increasingly rare, as did public suppers. Courtiers complained that the king was nowhere to be seen. “A Day With the Sun King.” <http://www.chateauversailles.fr/en/311_A_Day_with_the_Sun_King.php.>.

13 The Sun King Keeps Nobles at Versailles Changes Art
Keeps Power With Intendants Grand Style – Showed Wealth and Power Changes Art No Longer to Glorify God – Middle Ages No Longer to Glorify Human Potential – Renaissance Glorify King and Absolute Rule

14 Levee

15 Hall of Mirrors Versailles, 1668                           Queen’s Bedchamber

16 King's Bedchamber                                                                           King’s Suite

17 The Chapel Royal

18 Succession Charles II of Spain – childless
Promise throne to Philip of Anjou Louis XIV’s Grandson HUGE power War of the Spanish Succession “War when England, Austria, Dutch Rep., Portugal, German and Italian states try to prevent union of French and Spanish throne.” 1714 – Treaty of Utrecht Philip can keep the throne, but can’t be united Britain gets Gibraltar – Mediterranean entrance

19 War of Spanish Succession
What finally turned people against Louis XIV were his costly and destructive wars War of Spanish Succession Began when Louis’ grandson inherited the Spanish throne was a threat to the balance of power of Europe left France with a huge debt

20 Louis’ Death Sad years, apologized to people Cheered his death
Mixed legacy Times of great power Military leader of Europe Warfare Versailles – debt Abuse of power His ideas did not die however… Prussia and Austria on deck…


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