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The Reign of Louis XIV. Religious Wars and Power Struggles Between 1652 and 1598, Huguenots (French Protestants) & Catholics fought 8 religious wars In.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reign of Louis XIV. Religious Wars and Power Struggles Between 1652 and 1598, Huguenots (French Protestants) & Catholics fought 8 religious wars In."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reign of Louis XIV

2 Religious Wars and Power Struggles Between 1652 and 1598, Huguenots (French Protestants) & Catholics fought 8 religious wars In 1589, Henry IV king – Huguenot & 1 st Bourbon king Gave up his Protestantism and became a Catholic –“Paris is well worth a mass.” 1598 Edict of Nantes - religious tolerance to Huguenots Henry rebuilt France, made it prosperous, and strengthened the monarchy –He was stabbed to a death in 1610 by a religious fanatic

3 Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII, becomes king (son of Henry) Weak king - strong minister, Cardinal Richelieu Richelieu basically rules France Richelieu 2 steps increase monarchs power – Restricted Huguenots (no walls) so they couldn’t defy the king – Weakened power of the nobles No fortified castles Gave government jobs to middle class people Wanted France to be strongest state in Europe – Led to involvement in Thirty Years’ War

4 Louis XIV Comes to Power The strengthening of the French monarchy led most powerful ruler in French history – Louis XIV - 1643 Louis XIV believed that he and the state were one and the same – “L’etat, c’est moi” = “I am the state” Liked to be called the Sun King because all power radiated from him

5 Louis XIV said, “L’etat, c’est moi”

6 Louis, the Boy King King @ 4 – country ruled by Cardinal Mazarin - replaced Cardinal Richelieu Nobles hated Mazarin - he increased taxes and strengthened the central government – Nobles rebelled and threatened Mazarin and Louis – Rebellion failed when peasants and townspeople got tired of fighting and disorder – They preferred the oppression of an absolute king to the chaos

7 Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority Mazarin died - Louis took control Excluded nobles from his councils (weaker) Increased the power of the intendants, who collected taxes and administered justice – Intendants were like “civil servants”; appointed by king: collect taxes, administer justice & make sure his rule was being followed all over France He made sure that intendants communicated with him regularly

8 Economic Growth Louis wanted France to be economically, politically, and culturally strong Minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, believed in mercantilism – Wanted France to keep its wealth by being self-sufficient, rather than relying on imports Helped expand manufacturing Placed high tariff (tax) on imported goods Recognized importance of colonies for raw materials and market for French goods – Fur trade from Canada

9 Economic Growth After Colbert’s death, Louis canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected religious freedom for Huguenots Thousands of Huguenot artisans and business people left France France was left without many of its skilled workers Economic progress was slowed Who does that remind of you of?

10 The Sun King’s Grand Style Louis spent a fortune surrounding himself with luxury Built the huge palace at Versailles near Paris – Palace was 500 yards long – Ornate decoration and furnishings – Intended to clearly show Louis’s wealth and power

11 Louis Controls the Nobility Louis required hundreds of nobles to live at Versailles They were kept busy with elaborate rituals surrounding Louis – The Levée Increased royal authority in two ways: – Made the nobility dependent on Louis – Took them away from their homes so the intendants had more power Kept them under Louis watchful eye

12 Patronage of the Arts Versailles was a center of arts Louis made opera and ballet more popular Most famous writer – Moliere – Wrote comedies Louis supported the arts as a way to glorify the king and promote values that supported his absolute rule

13 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars France - most powerful country in Europe Invaded the Spanish Netherlands, but he only gained a small region Continued to fight but other countries built alliance against him A poor harvest, high taxes to finance the wars, and constant warfare brought suffering to the people of France

14 War of Spanish Succession In 1700, king of Spain dies with no heir He promised the throne to Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip Spain & France were enemies - now both French Bourbon ruled Other countries joined together to stop it unifying of France & Spain Led to the long War of Spanish Succession

15 War of Spanish Succession War lasted until 1714 Ended w/ Treaty of Utrecht Louis’s grandson remain king of Spain, but thrones Spain & France could not be united British came out of the war w/ Gibraltar (fortress controlling the Mediterranean) Ability send African slaves to the Spanish colonies in the Americas French territories in North America

16 Louis’s Death and Legacy Died in 1715 after 72 years of rule Positive legacy: – France was a great power – Leader in European art and literature – Military leader of Europe – Had a strong empire of colonies Negative legacy: – Left huge debt from wars and building Versailles – Resentment by the poor over taxes and Louis’s abuse of power eventually led to revolution

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