Presentation on theme: "Due Now – Part I Why is the French Revolution so important? 1.First major political change besides the American Revolution 2.First successful “people’s."— Presentation transcript:
Due Now – Part I Why is the French Revolution so important? 1.First major political change besides the American Revolution 2.First successful “people’s revolution” 3.The upper class controlled 90% of the wealth and land even though they made up of less than 5% of the population 4.It showed Absolute Power corrupts absolutely 5.Disillusioned popular (global) support of radical revolution
New homework Re-Read pages 598 – 602 – start at Louis XIV comes to Power Make sure you have defined the following Terms: (if not already completed) Edict of Nantes Skepticism Descartes Louis XIV Intendants Jean Baptiste Colbert Versailles War of Spanish Succession
Review of previous material Monarchs believed that their rule came from God and thus their family was destined to rule. Known as Devine Rule. (Power Tripping) Monarchs gained more power and, in turn, began demanding that they have access to more of the country’s public finance. This greater power was functional briefly, but in time, as the lower classes had to pay more taxes, the people revolted.
Louis XIV Upon Henry II death, none of his four sons were yet old enough to rule. In their stead, Henry’s Queen Catherine came to rule. This is known as “regency”. In France, Protestants known as Huguenots fought the Catholics for control between 1562 – 1598. This divided the country and weakened the government. In 1572, the St. Batholomew’s Day Massacre occurred in Paris. This caused 6 weeks of killing of Huguenots. It occurred when many Huguenot nobles joined in Paris for a wedding. Catherine de Médicis’s (Regent) daughter was marrying a Huguenot prince (Henry Navarre/Henry IV), the prince survived.
Review of previous material Many Protestant nobles died during the outburst. The Prince was Henry Navarre. Although not a direct descendant, Henry took over the throne and was known as Henry IV. He was a military leader as well as skilled politician. Many Catholics opposed his rule UNTIL Henry converted to become a Catholic. Edict of Nantes – Henry issued this to protect the protestants. It stated they would be protected and their right to worship ensured. Henry focused on rebuilding the country as well as uniting the people, but religious tensions persisted. One fanatic stabbed Henry for his religious tolerance.
Review of previous material Henry’s son (Louis XIII) acquired the throne following his death. He was NOT like his father, he was a weak ruler, but wisely selected a strong minister to make the decisions that Louis could not make. This minister, Cardinal Richelieu, essentially was the ruler of France. Decisions had to go through the King but almost all decisions were agreed to by Louis. Richelieu was vocally opposed to the protection of the Protestants that the Edict of Nantes ensured.
New Material Henry IV and Richelieu helped to prepare for the strongest monarch in French History. Louis XIV Louis XIV saw himself and the state as one in the same. (“If I am off track, Hyde is off track”) When Louis XIV gained the throne the minister ruling France was Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin ended the Thirty Years War, but he was disliked by the Nobles (1 st Estate) because he increased taxes and increased power to the throne which cut out their influence.
New Material The Nobles tried to revolt and threatened the young king’s life. Determined to never let this repeat, Louis XIV’s consolidation of monarchal power to unprecedented levels (he believed) would ensure that no threat to his power would arise.
New material The nobles revolt failed for three reasons: 1. Leaders distrusted one another (no unity) 2. The Government used violent means to end the revolt. 3. The people feared the chaos of revolution. They felt better to be ruled by an absolute monarch than has constant rebellion and chaos. When Mazarin died, Louis excluded the Nobles from his council thus reducing their influence in the court or in France. The council consisted on “Intendants” who oversaw tax collecting and administered justice
What Did We Learn? Louis XIV – “I am the State” Minister Power – Mazarin ended 30 years war Decreased Noble’s Power Mercantilism – State run economy Sun King – “The Wealth of France”, Versailles Can’t we smell a revolution brewing??