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Bell Ringer Who was the King of France that survived the St. Bartholomew's day massacre and wrote the Edict of Nantes? Henry IV.

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Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer Who was the King of France that survived the St. Bartholomew's day massacre and wrote the Edict of Nantes? Henry IV."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell Ringer Who was the King of France that survived the St. Bartholomew's day massacre and wrote the Edict of Nantes? Henry IV

2 Agenda/Objectives We are going to take a look at how Absolutism impacted France. - Louis XIV, Louis XV We are going to look at the social inequalities in France. - Third estate vs. First and Second Estate

3 The Reign of Louis XIV

4 Religious Wars and Power Struggles Between 1552 and 1598, Huguenots (French Protestants) and Catholics fought eight religious wars In 1589, Henry IV becomes king –He’s a Huguenot –First Bourbon king He was opposed by many Catholics, so he gave up his Protestantism and became a Catholic –“Paris is well worth a mass.” 1598, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes which granted religious tolerance to Huguenots Henry rebuilt France, made it prosperous, and strengthened the monarchy –He was stabbed to a death in 1610 by a religious fanatic

5 Henry IV of France

6 Henry IV stabbed to death in his royal carriage

7 Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Henry’s son, Louis XIII, becomes king He is a weak king, but he has a strong a minister, Cardinal Richelieu, a leader of the Catholic Church Richelieu basically rules France Richelieu takes two steps to increase the power of the monarchy: – Restricted Huguenots (no walls) so they couldn’t defy the king – Weakened power of the nobles No fortified castles Gave government jobs to middle class people Wanted France to be strongest state in Europe – Led to involvement in Thirty Years’ War

8 Cardinal Richelieu

9 Louis XIV Comes to Power The strengthening of the French monarchy paved the way for the most powerful ruler in French history – Louis XIV Louis XIV believed that he and the state were one and the same – “L’etat, c’est moi” = “I am the state” Liked to be called the Sun King because all power radiated from him


11 Louis XIV said, “L’etat, c’est moi”

12 Louis, the Boy King Became king when he was four years old The true ruler, was Cardinal Mazarin, who replaced Cardinal Richelieu The nobles hated Mazarin because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government – Nobles rebelled and threatened Mazarin and Louis – Rebellion failed when peasants and townspeople got tired of fighting and disorder – They preferred the oppression of an absolute king to the chaos

13 Louis XIV at Seven

14 Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority When Mazarin died, Louis took control He furthered weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils He increased the power of the intendants, who collected taxes and administered justice – Intendants were like “civil servants”; they were appointed by the king to make sure his rule was being followed all over France He made sure that local officials communicated with him regularly

15 Economic Growth Louis wanted France to be economically, politically, and culturally strong His minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, believed in mercantilism – Wanted France to keep its wealth by being self-sufficient, rather than relying on imports Helped expand manufacturing Placed high tariff (tax) on imported goods Recognized importance of colonies for raw materials and market for French goods – Fur trade from Canada

16 After Colbert’s death, Louis canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected religious freedom for Huguenots Thousands of Huguenot artisans and business people left France France was left without many of its skilled workers Economic progress was slowed Who does that remind of you of?


18 The Sun King’s Grand Style Louis spent a fortune surrounding himself with luxury Built the huge palace at Versailles near Paris – Palace was 500 yards long – Ornate decoration and furnishings – Intended to clearly show Louis’s wealth and power


20 Louis Controls the Nobility Louis required hundreds of nobles to live at Versailles They were kept busy with elaborate rituals surrounding Louis – The Levée Increased royal authority in two ways: – Made the nobility dependent on Louis – Took them away from their homes so the intendants had more power Kept them under Louis watchful eye


22 Patronage of the Arts Versailles was a center of arts Louis made opera and ballet more popular Most famous writer – Moliere – Wrote comedies Louis supported the arts as a way to glorify the king and promote values that supported his absolute rule

23 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Under Louis, France was the most powerful country in Europe He attempted to expand France’s boundaries by invading the Spanish Netherlands, but he only gained a small region Decided to fight other wars, but other countries joined together to keep France from becoming too strong A poor harvest, high taxes to finance the wars, and constant warfare brought suffering to the people of France

24 War of Spanish Succession In 1700, king of Spain dies with no heir He promised the throne to Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip Spain and France had been enemies, but were now both ruled by the French Bourbon family Other countries were threatened by this increase in the Bourbon’s power and joined together to stop it Led to the long War of Spanish Succession

25 War lasted until 1714 Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht which said Louis’s grandson could remain king of Spain, but the thrones of Spain and France could not be united British came out of the war with Gibraltar (a fortress controlling the entrance to the Mediterranean), permission to send African slaves to the Spanish colonies in the Americas, and some of France’s territories in North America

26 Louis’s Death and Legacy Died in 1715 Positive legacy: – France was a great power – Leader in European art and literature – Military leader of Europe – Had a strong empire of colonies Negative legacy: – Left huge debt from wars and building Versailles – Resentment by the poor over taxes and Louis’s abuse of power eventually led to revolution

27 The Seven’s Year War War fought in Europe, India, North America France ends up losing some of its colonial possessions Increases French national debt Louis XV

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