Fact or Fiction?FictionFact 1. Emerging adulthood females tend to have similar numbers of same-sex and cross-sex friends? 2. The three basic dimensions of romantic love are passion, intimacy, and commitment. 3. Gay and lesbian couples generally have the same relationship problems as heterosexual couples. 4. Among emerging adults, depression is more prevalent than anxiety. 4
Friendship What are some gender differences in friendships among emerging adults? Males and same-sex friends Females and same-sex friends Cross-sex friendships Friendship Greater number of friends Demand less of friends Less likely to divulge failures, emotional problems, relationship dilemmas Apt to give practical advice Physical contact through competition or combat Differences more cultural than biological In emerging adulthood, helps expand self and gender boundaries Usually not a prelude to romance, but not always the case Outsider assumptions can cause problems More intimate and emotional, including self-disclosing talk Likely to share problems about health, romance, and relatives When giving advice or support, greater show of sympathy Physical contact routine, such as hugs for greetings and farewells 5
The Development of Love intimacy versus isolation: Task of adults to seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment. Three distinct components of love, according to Sternberg (1988) Marriage Passion “Falling in love”; an intense physical, cognitive, and emotional onslaught characterized by excitement, ecstasy, and euphoria. Intimacy A reciprocal aspect of romance; knowing someone well, sharing secrets and nakedness as well as sex. Grows gradually through decisions to be together, mutual caregiving, shared possessions, and forgiveness (fincham et al., 2007). Commitment Cohabitation 6
What are some recent statistics about the state of U.S. marriages? Findings 12 percent of men; 20 percent of women 57 percent 3.6 divorced compared to 7.3 married per 1,000 Some subjects of 2009 U.S. Census What percent of adults between the ages of 20 and 25 were married How many adults were married? What was the divorce rate? Marriage 7 homogamy: Marriage between individuals who tend to be similar (i.e., attitudes, interests, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin).
Marriage 8 [Video: Relationship States: Marriage]
Marriage 9 [Video: Relationship States: Cohabitation]
Marriage 10 [Video: Excerpts from the Documentary Up: Three Young Women from Working Class Backgrounds]
What percentage of U.S. homicides involves husbands or wives? Homicide Rate Among people who know each other, 1976-2005, United States Female VictimsMale Victims Percent Offenders Intimate – spouse or boyfriend/girlfriend Non-spousal family memberAcquaintance Source: Maguire, 2010. 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Domestic Violence 11
In general, what sense of well-being do emerging adults experience? Young Adults’ Self-Ratings of Well-Being Average rating 4.25 4 3.75 1819-2021-2223-24 Age Source: Schulenberg et al., 2005, p. 424 Well-Being Men Women Total 12
Psychopathology 13 diathesis-stress model: The view that psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability(the diathesis) and stressful environment factors and life events. Anxiety disorders Evident in one-fourth of all U.S. residents below the age of 25 (more prevalent than depression, worldwide): Panic attacks, PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder). Young adults face a higher rate of trauma (military combat, rape, serious accident) yet are less protected by parents or spouses (Odlaug et al., 2010). How do genes and experience interact in some psychopathologies experienced by emerging adults? Psychopathology Mood disorders bipolar depression: In adulthood, the grandiosity of the mania and the despair of depression may be unchecked by the normal restraints on children (Geller et al., 2008; Merikangas & Pato, 2009). depression: Life experiences of emerging adulthood can set a downward spiral in motion though major depression may be rooted in biochemistry (in particular, neurotransmitters and hormones.) Schizophrenia Becoming overwhelmed by disorganized and bizarre thoughts, delusions, hallucinatio ns,and emotions (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Worldwide, symptoms typically begin in adolescence, with diagnosis most common in ages 18 to 24, with men particularly vulnerable (Anjum et al., 2010). Cause is partly genetic, but factors of early childhood malnutrition (or malnutrition during pregnancy) or extensive social pressure may be involved.
Closing Thoughts A theme of human development is that continuity and change are evident throughout life — what are some of the major social and emotional challenges and changes of emerging adulthood? 14