Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 11: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood Being With OthersChapter 11: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle AdulthoodHuman Development: A Life-Span ViewKail & Cavanaugh
2 FriendshipDefined as: a mutual relationship in which those involved influence one another’s behaviors and beliefsLevinger’s Stages of FriendshipABCDE modelAcquaintanceshipBuildupContinuationDeteriorationEnding—contingent on alternatives
3 Friendship Three dimensions of friendships in adulthood 1. Affective Emotional basis2. CommunalMutual interest3. Sociability & CompatibilityEntertainment/fun component
4 Siblings as Friends Special type of friendship Often longest Strongest during adolescence and late life and weakest during middle ageWomen generally place greater importance on the relationshipFamily reunions/gatheringsHolidaysCaretaking and support
5 Online Friendship How does it develop? 1. Reputation—online or offline identity2. Performance—what users do online is how others judge them3. Precommitment—”leap of faith” through self-disclosure4. Situational Factors—the importance of the relationship when compared to other competing factors
6 Gender Variations in Friendships Gender variations in young adult friendships tend to show continuity in gender variations in children’s friendshipsMenTend to have fewer close friendsEmphasis on shared activitiesConfiding is in conflict with competingFace social pressure to be brave and strong which is in conflict with emotional sharingWomenTend to have more close friendsEmphasis on emotional sharing and intimacy
7 Cross-Gender Friendships Both men and women have difficulties forming cross-gender friendshipsCross-gender friendships tend to help men have lower levels of dating anxiety and a higher capacity for intimacyMaintaining cross-sex friendships once individuals enter into exclusive dating relationships, marriage or committed relationships is difficult and often problematicWomen tend to underperceiveMen tend to overperceive
8 Romantic Relationships EarlyOften marked by high amounts of passion and infatuationHigh risk of misunderstanding and jealousyExciting in the beginning, but not typically enough to maintain the relationshipAs the relationship develops, passion decreases but commitment increases through shared experiences, support, and caringNeurological and Life Cycle Bases of LoveHigh levels of dopamine during early stages of loveSwitches to substances related to morphine (a narcotic) later on
9 The Theory of Assortative Mating People select mates based on their similarity to each otherReligious beliefsPhysical traitsAgeSESIntelligencePolitical viewsCouples higher in marital satisfaction tend to be similar in terms of openness to experience but not necessarily in other dimensions of personalityHealthy people tend to be with healthy people; unhealthy with other unhealthy people
10 Murstein’s Theory Stimulus Values Role Physical appearance, social class, etc. match my own?ValuesValues regarding sex, religion, politics, etc. match my own?RoleIdeas about the relationship, communication style, gender roles, etc. match my own?
11 Other Important Variables Physical attractiveness is more important than once thoughtCultural variations existAttachment style, which is influenced by earlier relationships during infancy and childhood
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