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Family and Parenting  Analyzing Family Life  The Diversity of Adult Life Styles  Parenting  Other Family Relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Family and Parenting  Analyzing Family Life  The Diversity of Adult Life Styles  Parenting  Other Family Relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Family and Parenting  Analyzing Family Life  The Diversity of Adult Life Styles  Parenting  Other Family Relationships

2 Direct and Indirect Interactions Between Parents and Children Analyzing Family Life Marital relationship Parenting Child behavior and development

3 Percentage of Single Adults 30 to 34 Years of Age The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Percent Year

4 Cohabiting Adults Dramatic rise in cohabiting before marriage: ◦ Higher in countries other than the U.S. ◦ Cohabiting tends to be short-lived in U.S. The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

5 Married Adults Marital trends: ◦ Changing male-female equality in marriage has created more fragile, intense marital relationships ◦ More adults remain single longer ◦ U.S. still a marrying society; divorce rates slowing The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Year Age (years)

6 What Makes Marriages Work Premarital education- ◦ Improves quality of marriage ◦ May reduce risk of divorce ◦ Linked to higher level of commitment to spouse and lower level of destructive marital conflict Benefits of a good marriage- ◦ Healthier lives ◦ Lower levels of depression, anxiety, anger The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

7 Divorced Adults If divorce occurs, it usually happens early in marriage:  Psychiatric disorders and hospital admission  Clinical depression and alcoholism  Psychosomatic disorders The Diversity of Adult Life Styles Years married Percent of divorcees

8 Divorced in Middle and Older Adults Main reason for staying married: children Main causes of divorce: The Diversity of Adult Life Styles –For men No obvious problems, just fell out of love Cheating Different values, lifestyles –For women Verbal, physical, emotional abuse Alcohol or drug abuse Cheating

9 Remarried Adults Complex histories and multiple relationships make adjustment difficult: ◦ Men remarry sooner than women ◦ Stepfamilies face unique tasks ◦ Many remarry for financial reasons, not love The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

10 Gay and Lesbian Adults Similar in satisfactions and need to find balance as heterosexual couples: ◦ Needs: romantic love, affection, autonomy, equality ◦ More flexible in gender roles than heterosexuals ◦ Prefer long term, committed relationships ◦ Lesbians usually do not have open relationships ◦ Increasingly creating families with children The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

11 Amount of Same Sex Couples with Children The Diversity of Adult Life Styles

12 Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Parenting Authoritarian Authoritative Neglectful Indulgent Restrictive, punitive style; parents exhort child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions Parent very uninvolved in child’s life Parents very involved with children, place few demands/controls on them

13 Punishment and Discipline Historically, corporal punishment considered necessity and desirable for disciplining child: ◦ Legal in all states; used by majority of parents ◦ Favored most in U.S. and Canada Corporal punishment by parents associated with: ◦ Higher levels of immediate compliance ◦ Increased aggression among children ◦ Lower levels of moral internalization and mental health Sweden outlawed physical spanking of a child in 1979: ◦ Youth rates of delinquency, alcohol use, rape, and suicide dropped Parenting

14 Factors Linked to Child Abuse Marital conflict and individual hostility linked to physical punishment Child maltreatment: ◦ Almost 900,000 in 2002 ◦ 84% abused by parents ◦ Mandatory reporting for professionals Parenting

15 Context of Abuse No single factor is total cause: ◦ Violence in American culture through media, etc. ◦ Family member interactions ◦ Perpetuating history: parents abused as children Developmental consequences: ◦ Emotional and relational/attachment problems ◦ Personality problems and risk of suicide ◦ Aggressive behaviors and substance use/abuse Parenting

16 Parent-Adolescent Conflict Conflict with parents escalates in early adolescence: ◦ Biological changes of puberty ◦ Cognitive changes and idealism ◦ Social changes and independence ◦ Maturational changes ◦ Violated expectations Parenting

17 Effects of Divorce on Children Children: ◦ More likely to show poorer adjustment ◦ More likely to have academic and behavioral problems ◦ Overall adjustment affected by social maturity, gender, temperament, custody situation, SES Adjustment improves if: ◦ conflicts reduced by divorce ◦ parents harmonious and authoritative Parenting

18 Single-Parent Families in Different Countries Parenting

19 Divorce and Children’s Emotional Problems Parenting

20 Changing Profile of Grandparents Increasing number are raising their grandchildren due to- ◦ Divorce ◦ Adolescent pregnancies ◦ Drug use by parents In 2000: 5.6 million children Stress linked to raising grandchildren Grandparents and great grandparents are living longer Other Family Relationships

21 Intergenerational Relationships As children age, think more positively of their parents: ◦ Mother-daughter conflicts lessen over life course ◦ Family members maintain considerable contact ◦ Parents and young adult children describe their relationship differently; relationship related to nature of earlier relationship Other Family Relationships


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