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Development Through the Lifespan

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1 Development Through the Lifespan
Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Erikson’s Theory: Intimacy versus Isolation
Making a permanent commitment to a life partner Other close relationships: friends, work Involves giving up some newfound independence, redefining identity Isolation Loneliness, self-absorption Hesitate to form close ties Fear of losing identity

3 Levinson’s Early Adult Season
Early adult transition Dream Mentor Early adulthood life structure Men: “settling down” Women: continued instability, more roles Age 30 transition Reevaluate life structure Often focus on underdeveloped aspects

4 Vaillant’s Adaptation to Life
20s – intimacy concerns 30s – career consolidation 40s – generative 50s–60s – “keepers of meaning” 70s – spiritual and reflective

5 Social Clock Age-graded expectations for life events
Less rigid than in earlier generations Following a social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability Distress if not following or falling behind

6 Selecting a Mate Physical proximity
Most select partners who are similar Gender differences Women: intelligence, ambition, financials Men: attractiveness, domestic skills

7 Triangular Theory of Love
Three components: Intimacy Passion Commitment Passionate love early; companionate love later Passion gradually fades while intimacy, commitment grow Cultural differences

8 Friendships in Early Adulthood
Friends usually similar, share common interests Same-sex friendships Gender differences Individual differences Other-sex friendships Fewer, shorter-lasting than same-sex Benefits to both genders Sexual attraction regulated Siblings as friends

9 Loneliness and Emotional Distress at Different Ages

10 Traditional and Egalitarian Marriages
Traditional – clear division of roles Woman: cares for husband, children, home Man: head of household, economic support Egalitarian – partners relate as equals Share authority Balance attention to jobs, children, home, spouse

11 Gender Differences in Marital Satisfaction
Men: Just being married improves physical and mental health Attachment, belonging, social support Women: Relationship quality is important Overwhelming demands of many roles cause dissatisfaction

12 Assaults Against Women by Intimate Partners

13 Trends in Having Children
Fewer married couples have children 70% Have first child later Smaller numbers of children Average less than 2

14 Transition to Parenthood
Many profound changes Roles often become more traditional Marriage can be strained Problems before children predict problems after Sharing care predicts happiness Later parenthood eases transition

15 How Many Children? Fewer children today Advantages of small families:
Mothers’ careers Divorce Advantages of small families: Enhances parent-child interaction Marital satisfaction Healthier, higher IQ children Large families can work if parents well-educated, higher SES

16 Singlehood Increasing Gender Differences Ethnic Differences
30% males, 20% females ages never married; 8-10% single for life Divorce adds numbers Gender Differences Women more likely to stay single More high SES women, low SES men single Ethnic Differences African Americans single longer Stressful periods Late 20s mid 30s for women

17 Increases in Cohabitation

18 Divorce and Remarriage
Half of U.S., 1/3 Canadian marriages end in divorce; most involve children Communication problems, individual histories predict divorce Immediate distress, anxiety, then search for new identity, new partner New partner more important to men Remarriages vulnerable Reasons for marriage Negative patterns View divorce as acceptable resolution Stepfamily stress

19 Options in Parenthood Childlessness Step Parenting Single parents
Divorced Never married Gay and Lesbian Parents

20 Career Development in Early Adulthood
Disappointment near start of career common Many job changes in 20s Settle in after evaluation and adjustment Adjust expectations to opportunities to advance Few opportunities, more work disengagement Self-efficacy, mentoring affect adjustment, success Gender and Ethnic Differences Racial bias

21 Women’s Career Development
More often discontinuous Leave for child-rearing, family care More often in low-paying, low-advancement jobs Work-family balance challenging Higher level career, fewer family obligations Dual-earner marriages Role overload

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