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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood This multimedia product.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood This multimedia product."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Erikson’s Theory: Intimacy versus Isolation Intimacy Making a permanent commitment to a life partner Other close relationships: friends, work Involves giving up some newfound independence, redefining identity Isolation Loneliness, self- absorption Hesitate to form close ties Fear of losing identity

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Levinson’s Early Adult Season Early adult transition Dream Mentor Early adulthood life structure Men: “settling down” Women: continued instability, more roles Age 30 transition Reevaluate life structure Often focus on underdeveloped aspects

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Vaillant’s Adaptation to Life 20s – intimacy concerns 30s – career consolidation 40s – generative 50s – 60s – “keepers of meaning” 70s – spiritual and reflective

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Social Clock Age-graded expectations for life events Less rigid than in earlier generations Following a social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability Distress if not following or falling behind

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Selecting a Mate Physical proximity Most select partners who are similar Gender differences Women: intelligence, ambition, financials Men: attractiveness, domestic skills

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Triangular Theory of Love Three components: Intimacy Passion Commitment Passionate love early; companionate love later Passion gradually fades while intimacy, commitment grow Cultural differences

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Friendships in Early Adulthood Friends usually similar, share common interests Same-sex friendships Gender differences Individual differences Other-sex friendships Fewer, shorter-lasting than same-sex Benefits to both genders Sexual attraction regulated Siblings as friends

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Loneliness and Emotional Distress at Different Ages

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Traditional and Egalitarian Marriages Traditional – clear division of roles Woman: cares for husband, children, home Man: head of household, economic support Egalitarian – partners relate as equals Share authority Balance attention to jobs, children, home, spouse

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Gender Differences in Marital Satisfaction Men: Just being married improves physical and mental health Attachment, belonging, social support Women: Relationship quality is important Overwhelming demands of many roles cause dissatisfaction

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Assaults Against Women by Intimate Partners

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Trends in Having Children Fewer married couples have children 70% Have first child later Smaller numbers of children Average less than 2

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Transition to Parenthood Many profound changes Roles often become more traditional Marriage can be strained Problems before children predict problems after Sharing care predicts happiness Later parenthood eases transition

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 How Many Children? Fewer children today Mothers’ careers Divorce Advantages of small families: Enhances parent-child interaction Marital satisfaction Healthier, higher IQ children Large families can work if parents well- educated, higher SES

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Singlehood Increasing 30% males, 20% females ages 30-34 never married; 8-10% single for life Divorce adds numbers Gender Differences Women more likely to stay single More high SES women, low SES men single Ethnic Differences African Americans single longer Stressful periods Late 20s mid 30s for women

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Increases in Cohabitation

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Divorce and Remarriage Half of U.S., 1/3 Canadian marriages end in divorce; most involve children Communication problems, individual histories predict divorce Immediate distress, anxiety, then search for new identity, new partner New partner more important to men Remarriages vulnerable Reasons for marriage Negative patterns View divorce as acceptable resolution Stepfamily stress

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Options in Parenthood Childlessness Step Parenting Single parents Divorced Never married Gay and Lesbian Parents

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Career Development in Early Adulthood Disappointment near start of career common Many job changes in 20s Settle in after evaluation and adjustment Adjust expectations to opportunities to advance Few opportunities, more work disengagement Self-efficacy, mentoring affect adjustment, success Gender and Ethnic Differences Racial bias

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Women’s Career Development More often discontinuous Leave for child-rearing, family care More often in low-paying, low-advancement jobs Work-family balance challenging Higher level career, fewer family obligations Dual-earner marriages Role overload

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