3 The Function of Arranged Marriage (Ahmed) 1. Where does power reside?2. Reaffirming which system?3. Strategic in consolidating what?4. Arranged marriage & Collectivist Culture5. Too big of a decision for two youth!
5 Model of factors affecting Marital Stability (p. 208) Beliefs & attitudesAbout Part. or RelationshipPersonalityTraitsPartnerinteractionSatisfactionStabilitySocialSupport
6 Exchange Theory The process of looking for a mate 1. Hence, “the marriage market!”2. What do you bring to the table?3. What can you do for me?!
7 Permanent Availability Model of Marriage (Faber) All adults are in effect, permanently available to marry, even if already married
8 Traditional Marriage Exchange RELATED TO:1. Traditional Gender Roles2. Morality of Sexual Restraint
9 Traditional Marriage Exchange Women* Sexual Favors* Attractiveness* Ability to bear Children
10 Traditional Marriage Exchange Men* Protection* Status* Economic Support
11 Marriage Exchange in a Changing Society Optimistic: as women gain occupational & economic equality with men, the basis for exchange will also become more equal, with both partners valuing the same set of resources:*What’s the downside of today’s model, i.e., pessimistic view?
12 Principles of HOMOGAMY Endogamy :marrying within one’s social group (opposite-exogamy)Heterogamy, marrying someone of different race, EDU. age, religion or class)188.8.131.52.5.
13 Different Dimensions of Homogamy (Whyte) Three different Marriage Cohorts:1. Married between2. Married between3. Married between
14 Different Dimensions of Homogamy (Whyte) RACE: Significant across all groupsETHNICITY: some influence in groups #1 & #2; decreasing influence in group #3RELIGION: some influence in group #1 & #2; decreasing influence in group #3
15 Different Dimensions of Homogamy (Whyte) SOCIAL CLASS: Important across all groups, however, how it’s measured changed from family origin characteristics (father’s occupation & money earned) to personal characteristics (education, own job and money earned)PARENTAL INFLUENCE: not a factor in any group. Parental pressure toward homogamous marriage actually produced opposite effect.
16 Theories of Mate Selection Individualistic TheoriesSociological Theories
17 Parent Image Theory (Freud) The Oedipus Complex: we seek a partner who is like our mother (for boys) or our father (for girls).
18 Attachment Theory (p189)During infancy and childhood, we learn a system or style of attaching to others:1.2.3.
19 Theory of Complimentary Needs (Winch) After “filtering” for similar others (homogamy), we then look for important differencesThree complimentary needs:1.2.3.
21 Murstein’s “Filtering Theory” Stimulus-Values-Roles (SVR) S: Initial physical attractionV: Partners compare values to see if there is an “appropriate” match.R: Prospective spouses test and negotiate how they will play their respective marital and leisure roles
23 Dating as Courtship Mead’s Criticism A competitive game in which Americans, preoccupied with success, try to be the most popular and have the most dates.Two major problems with dating:1.2.Solution: Two-Stage Marriage
24 Getting togetherCharacterized as large groups coming together for a party or shared activity.1. How does meeting in groups differ from going on a date?2. How does going out with the girls differ from going on a date?3. How have attitudes toward marriage change?4. Why might going out in groups help you pick a better spouse?
25 Cohabitation Selection Hypothesis: Assumes that people that choose serial cohabitation are different from those who do not.a. Less effective in problem-solving and communication skillsb. more negative attitudes toward marriage
26 CohabitationExperience Hypothesis: Posits that cohabiting experiences themselves affect individual so that, once married, they are more likely to divorcea.b.
27 Courtship Violence: Where do you Learn to be Violent?
28 Courtship Violence 20% in Cohabiting 20-40% in Dating relationships Date Rape50% of Freshman and Sophomore Women report unwanted attempts at intercourse(83% “Men they knew moderately well”)50% of these attempts succeededNon of the women reported the rape1 in 15 college men admit to behavior classified as rape
29 Rape Myths Stranger Rape/ Rapists are mentally ill Almost 2/3 of rapes were committed by someone known to the victim (RAINN, 2008):73% of sexual assaults were perpetrated by a non-stranger38% of rapists are a friend or acquaintance.28% are an intimate 7% are a relative93% of juvenile sexual assault victims know their attacker (RAINN, 2008):34.2% of attackers were family members58.7% were acquaintancesOnly 7% of the perpetrators were strangers to the victimMen cannot Control themselvesProvoked