Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS. THE SCIENCE WHICH TREATS THE NATURE, LIFE AND ACTION OF MICROORGANISMS."— Presentation transcript:
THE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS. THE SCIENCE WHICH TREATS THE NATURE, LIFE AND ACTION OF MICROORGANISMS
It is impossible to see microorganisms without a microscope…….
Surgical Technologists must learn to see microorganisms with their “minds eye”.
Microorganisms can pose a threat to both patients and employees.
CONTAMINATION The state of being soiled or infected by contact with infectious organisms or other material.
To effectively control Microorganisms, Surgical Technicians must understand: How microorganisms are identified and classified Basic facts about microorganisms How they grow
To effectively control Microorganisms, Surgical Technicians must understand: What conditions they need to grow and reproduce How they are transmitted from person-to-person and place-to-place How they can be controlled and killed
Basic Facts About Microorganisms Not all microorganisms are harmful…….. Microorganisms are necessary for our existence Microorganisms help with: 1.Food development 2.Decay of leaves and other natural waste 3.Sewage treatment, and more…..
Size and structure of bacteria Most bacterial cells are 1-2 microns in size A micron is 1/25,000 of an inch
SPORE A microorganism capable of forming a thick wall around itself that enables it to survive in adverse conditions; a resistant form of bacteria. * Bacterial spores pose specific challenges to the Operating Room environment
Cells and more cells…. Cells are basic units of all living organisms (plants, animals, and bacteria) They are the smallest unit that can live, grow and reproduce. They have different sizes and shapes
Identification and Classification of Microorganisms: Common ways to identify and Classify Microorganisms include: 1. Shape 2. Color Change 3. Need for oxygen
Classification by shape Bacteria are divided into 3 main groups by shape: 1. Cocci are round or spherical shaped and occur in pairs, clusters, or chains 2. Rods (bacilli) may be large and brick- shaped or small and stick-like 3. Spirals vary from comma-shaped to longer bacteria with many twists
Bacteria are classified by color change Bacteria are normally clear, color change occurs when bacteria are subjected to certain tests. Common stain tests -gram stain -Ziehl-Neilson Stain
Gram Stain Procedure: The gram stain is the most commonly used differential stain for determining cell morphology. Differential stains allow for distinguishing certain characteristics of cells, and the stains commonly use two or more stains. The Gram stain, which divides most clinically significant bacteria into two main groups, is the first step in bacterial identification
Bacteria are Classified by their Need for Oxygen: Aerobic Bacteria- Capable of growing in the presence of free oxygen. Requires oxygen Anaerobic Bacteria- Capable of growing in the absence of free oxygen. Does not require oxygen
How Bacteria Live and Grow… BACTERIA _______________________________________ NEED THE RIGHT CONDITIONS TO GROW
Temperature Requirements for Bacteria Psychrophiles – like cold temps Mesophiles - like moderate temps Thermophiles – like warm temps *Mesophiles are often pathogenic to humans and grow well at body temperature.
Bacterial Reproduction Bacteria reproduce by dividing This occurs approximately every 20 minutes This process is call Binary Fission
Resistant Microorganisms ____________________________ Some microorganisms adapt and change to increase their chances of survival…..
Methicillin-Resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) ____________________________ ___ Staphyloccus aureus bacteria that have developed a resistance to Methicillin, the drug of choice MRSA usually occurs in patients who have been on antibiotics therapy for a long time
Vancomycin-Resistant Entrococcus (VRE) ____________________________ _ Enterococcus bacteria that are no longer sensitive to vancomycin Transmission can occur by direct contact, or indirectly via the hands of personnel
NON-BACTERIAL ORGANISMS VIRUSES PROTOZOA & FUNGI “I am a real fungi, just ask My “Shrooms”
VIRUS _____________________________________ ONE OF A GROUP OF MINUTE INFECTIOUS AGENTS THAT ONLY GROW IN LIVING TISSUE OR CELLS.
Viruses are Tiny…… Viruses are about 1000 times smaller than bacteria If you were to enlarge a virus to the Size of a baseball, the average bacterium would be the size of the pitchers mound, and one single cell from the human body would be the size of the entire ballpark.
Common Viral Diseases Small pox Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Measles AIDS Mumps Polio Common colds Shingles Cold sores Warts hepatitis
Hepatitis Five distinct viruses A, B, C, D, and E A is often implicated in food borne illnesses B, C,D, and E are transmitted in body fluids There are vaccines available for A&B.
Herpes Simplex Recurrent skin and mucous membrane infections HSV Type I is associated with cold sores and fever blisters HSV Type 2 is associated with genital infections.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Causes AIDS Occurs when the virus enters the blood stream
PROTOZOAN _____________________________________ Any one-celled animal-like microorganism is the sub kingdom of protozoa
FUNGI Plant-like organism group that includes molds, mushrooms, and yeasts without chlorophyll. They live by feeding off living or dead organisms Fungi are involved in the production of most kinds of antibiotics
FUNGI Several species of fungi can cause respiratory disease in humans who inhale spores through dust, bird droppings, soil and other sources.
Superficial FUNGI Attack mainly epidermis, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces For example: Ringworm and Athlete’s Foot
Transmission of Microorganisms Microorganisms cannot move by themselves, but they have been called the “World’s Greatest Hitchhikers” Microorganisms can be transmitted by air currents, dust particles, in liquids, on solid objects like instruments and equipment….and by humans (us)
Facts about Microorganisms We come in contact with thousands of types of microorganisms each day. Only about 1% are harmful to humans However, any microorganism can be harmful to patients whose defenses are compromised due to illness, injury or invasive procedures.
For our patients! The hospital is a very dangerous place!! Our job is to protect them
The chain of infection Portal of entry Into the host Mode of Transmission Portal of Exit Of the Agent From the Reservoir of the agent Susceptible Host Causative Agent
Causative Agent The microorganism that causes an infectious disease Characteristics that make microorganisms capable of causing disease: Invasiveness Viability in a free state Pathogenicity Virulence Infectious Dose
Break the chain of infection by: Eliminating the Causative agent Avoid cross-contamination Thorough cleaning Disinfection Sterilization
Reservoir of the agent The place where an infectious agent can survive
Breaking the Chain of infection: Reducing Reservoirs Surgical Technologists can reduce reservoirs by practicing good personal hygiene and health habits Properly cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing equipment, instruments, and utensils SURGICAL CONSCIENCE!!
Portal of Exit The path by which an infectious agent leaves the reservoir
Portals of Exit Respiratory tract- sneezing and coughing Genitourinary Tract- Through urine, vaginal secretions, and semen Gastrointestinal Tract-Through vomit and stools Skin/mucous Membrane- Through mucous or wound drainage Blood-Through blood transfusions or contact with blood Transplacental-Through the placenta from mother to baby
Break the chain of infection by Protecting yourself and other from exposure Surgical Technologists should: 1.Practice proper waste disposal 2.Wear PPE when they may come in contact with in infectious substances
Modes of Transmission Airborne- infectious agents found in tiny droplet nuclei or dust that are suspended in the air and may travel. For example: Vector-borne- carried by insects (rare in U.S. hospitals)
Break the Chain of Infection by: Maintain good hand hygiene Following good work practices for cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization Following airflow control guidelines Following Standard Precautions guidelines
Portal of Entry The path used by an infectious agent to enter a susceptible host