Presentation on theme: "MICROBIOLOGY THE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS. THE SCIENCE WHICH TREATS THE NATURE, LIFE AND ACTION OF MICROORGANISMS."— Presentation transcript:
1 MICROBIOLOGYTHE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS. THE SCIENCE WHICH TREATS THE NATURE, LIFE AND ACTION OF MICROORGANISMS
2 It is impossible to see microorganisms without a microscope…….
3 Surgical Technologists must learn to see microorganisms with their “minds eye”.
4 Microorganisms can pose a threat to both patients and employees.
5 CONTAMINATIONThe state of being soiled or infected by contact with infectious organisms or other material.
6 To effectively control Microorganisms, Surgical Technicians must understand: How microorganisms are identified and classifiedBasic facts about microorganismsHow they grow
7 To effectively control Microorganisms, Surgical Technicians must understand: What conditions they need to grow and reproduceHow they are transmitted from person-to-person and place-to-placeHow they can be controlled and killed
8 Basic Facts About Microorganisms Not all microorganisms are harmful……..Microorganisms are necessary for our existenceMicroorganisms help with:Food developmentDecay of leaves and other natural wasteSewage treatment, and more…..
9 Size and structure of bacteria Most bacterial cells are 1-2 microns in sizeA micron is1/25,000 of aninch
10 SPOREA microorganism capable of forming a thick wall around itself that enables it to survive in adverse conditions; a resistant form of bacteria. * Bacterial spores pose specific challenges to the Operating Room environment
11 Cells and more cells….Cells are basic units of all living organisms (plants, animals, and bacteria)They are the smallest unit that can live, grow and reproduce.They have different sizes and shapes
12 Identification and Classification of Microorganisms: Common ways to identify and Classify Microorganisms include:1. Shape2. Color Change3. Need for oxygen
13 Classification by shape Bacteria are divided into 3 main groups by shape:1. Cocci are round or spherical shaped andoccur in pairs, clusters, or chains2. Rods (bacilli) may be large and brick-shaped or small and stick-like3. Spirals vary from comma-shaped to longerbacteria with many twists
14 Bacteria are classified by color change Bacteria are normally clear, color change occurs when bacteria are subjected to certain tests.Common stain tests-gram stain-Ziehl-Neilson Stain
15 Gram Stain Procedure:The gram stain is the most commonly used differential stain for determining cell morphology. Differential stains allow for distinguishing certain characteristics of cells, and the stains commonly use two or more stains. The Gram stain, which divides most clinically significant bacteria into two main groups, is the first step in bacterial identification
16 Bacteria are Classified by their Need for Oxygen: Aerobic Bacteria- Capable of growing in the presence of free oxygen. Requires oxygenAnaerobic Bacteria- Capable of growing in the absence of free oxygen. Does not require oxygen
17 How Bacteria Live and Grow… BACTERIA _______________________________________ NEED THE RIGHT CONDITIONS TO GROW
18 Temperature Requirements for Bacteria Psychrophiles – like cold tempsMesophiles like moderate tempsThermophiles – like warm temps*Mesophiles are often pathogenic to humans and grow well at body temperature.
19 Bacterial Reproduction Bacteria reproduce by dividingThis occurs approximately every 20 minutesThis process is call Binary Fission
20 Resistant Microorganisms ____________________________ Some microorganisms adapt and change to increase their chances of survival…..
21 Methicillin-Resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) _______________________________ Staphyloccus aureus bacteria that have developed a resistance to Methicillin, the drug of choiceMRSA usually occurs in patients who have been on antibiotics therapy for a long time
22 Vancomycin-Resistant Entrococcus (VRE) _____________________________ Enterococcus bacteria that are no longer sensitive to vancomycinTransmission can occur by direct contact, or indirectly via the hands of personnel
23 NON-BACTERIAL ORGANISMS “I am a real fungi , just askMy “Shrooms”VIRUSES PROTOZOA & FUNGI
24 VIRUS _____________________________________ ONE OF A GROUP OF MINUTE INFECTIOUS AGENTS THAT ONLY GROW IN LIVING TISSUE OR CELLS.
25 Viruses are Tiny…… Viruses are about 1000 times smaller than bacteria If you were to enlarge a virus to theSize of a baseball, the average bacteriumwould be the size of the pitchers mound, and one single cellfrom the human body would be the size of the entire ballpark.
26 Common Viral Diseases Small pox Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Measles AIDSMumpsPolioCommon coldsShinglesCold soresWartshepatitis
27 Hepatitis Five distinct viruses A, B, C, D, and E A is often implicated in food borne illnessesB, C,D, and E are transmitted in body fluidsThere are vaccines available for A&B.
28 Herpes Simplex Recurrent skin and mucous membrane infections HSV Type I is associated with cold sores and fever blistersHSV Type 2 is associated with genital infections.
29 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Causes AIDSOccurs when the virus enters the blood stream
30 PROTOZOAN _____________________________________ Any one-celled animal-like microorganism is the sub kingdom of protozoa
31 FUNGIPlant-like organism group that includes molds, mushrooms, and yeasts without chlorophyll.They live by feeding off living or dead organismsFungi are involved in the production of most kinds of antibiotics
32 FUNGISeveral species of fungi can cause respiratory disease in humans who inhale spores through dust, bird droppings, soil and other sources.
33 Superficial FUNGIAttack mainly epidermis, hair, nails, and mucosal surfacesFor example:Ringworm and Athlete’s Foot
34 Transmission of Microorganisms Microorganisms cannot move by themselves, but they have been called the “World’s Greatest Hitchhikers”Microorganisms can be transmitted by air currents, dust particles, in liquids, on solid objects like instruments and equipment….and by humans (us)
35 Facts about Microorganisms We come in contact with thousands of types of microorganisms each day.Only about 1% are harmful to humansHowever, any microorganism can be harmful to patients whose defenses are compromised due to illness, injury or invasive procedures.
37 For our patients! The hospital is a very dangerous place!! Our job is to protect them
38 The chain of infection Susceptible Host Causative Agent Portal of entryInto the hostReservoirof theagentPortal of ExitOf the AgentFrom theReservoirMode ofTransmission
39 Causative Agent The microorganism that causes an infectious disease Characteristics that make microorganisms capable of causing disease:Invasiveness Viability in a free statePathogenicityVirulenceInfectious Dose
40 Break the chain of infection by: Eliminating the Causative agentAvoid cross-contaminationThorough cleaningDisinfectionSterilization
41 Reservoir of the agentThe place where an infectious agent can survive
42 Breaking the Chain of infection: Reducing ReservoirsSurgical Technologists can reduce reservoirs by practicing good personal hygiene and health habitsProperly cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing equipment, instruments, and utensilsSURGICAL CONSCIENCE!!
43 Portal of ExitThe path by which an infectious agent leaves the reservoir
44 Portals of Exit Respiratory tract- sneezing and coughing Genitourinary Tract- Through urine, vaginal secretions, and semenGastrointestinal Tract-Through vomit and stoolsSkin/mucous Membrane- Through mucous or wound drainageBlood-Through blood transfusions or contact with bloodTransplacental-Through the placenta from mother to baby
45 Break the chain of infection by Protecting yourself and other from exposureSurgical Technologists should:Practice proper waste disposalWear PPE when they may come in contact with ininfectious substances
46 Modes of TransmissionAirborne- infectious agents found in tiny droplet nuclei or dust that are suspended in the air and may travel.For example:Vector-borne- carried by insects(rare in U.S. hospitals)
47 Break the Chain of Infection by: Maintain good hand hygieneFollowing good work practices for cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilizationFollowing airflow control guidelinesFollowing Standard Precautions guidelines
48 Portal of EntryThe path used by an infectious agent to enter a susceptible host