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What is infection? An illness caused by the spread of micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites) to humans from other humans, animals or the.

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Presentation on theme: "What is infection? An illness caused by the spread of micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites) to humans from other humans, animals or the."— Presentation transcript:

1 HLTIN301A Comply with infection control policies and procedures in health work

2 What is infection? An illness caused by the spread of micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites) to humans from other humans, animals or the environment

3 What is infection? There are many terms used to describe infectious organisms. These include: ‘Bugs’ Germs Bacteria Viruses Pathogens Micro-organisms Fungi Parasites

4 Method of transmission
Chain of Infection Source Method of transmission Susceptible host Exit point Entry point Microorganism

5 How is infection spread?
Infection is spread by a chain of events. A chain of infection involves having the following parts: 1. Cause 2. Source 3. Exit 4. Method of transmission 5. Entry 6. Susceptible host

6 How is infection spread?
1. Cause – having micro-organisms present 2. Source * Sick people, people who have been exposed to an infectious agent, but not infected Food Equipment Water 3. Exit body fluids skin contact Droplets excretions and secretions

7 How is infection spread? Continued…
4. Method of Transmission – Direct contact -from one person to another Indirect contact - * from surfaces ingestion of contaminated food or water through the air as an airborne particle via an animal or insect

8 How is infection spread? Continued…
5. Entry - cuts or breaks in the skin Particles entering a normally sterile cavity eg: a catheter breaks in the mucous membrane the gastro intestinal tract respiratory tract

9 How is infection spread? Continued…
6. Susceptible host – elderly Immobile Very ill eg: cancer, diabetes or other chronic disease using immunosuppressant treatments Anyone who has a combination of the above

10 Method of transmission
Source People, Food, Equipment, Water Method of transmission Airborne, direct contact, ingestion, surfaces – objects, benches Susceptible host Aged, immobile, immuno-suppresant Exit point Body fluid, skin, droplets Entry point Broken skin, wounds, respiratory, urinary tracts Micro-organism Bacteria Fungi Viruses Identify micro-organisms Recognise high risk patients, treat diseases, Hand washing, sterilizing, disinfecting, cleaning, immunisation BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Wound care, catheter care, hand washing PPE, Hand washing waste disposal control body fluid Food handling, sterilization, airflow control, hand washing

11 How is infection transmitted?
There are 4 main ways that infection can be transmitted: Direct/Indirect contact (person to person or via third person/environment) Airborne (fine spray is coughed in the air, travel more than 1 metre) / Droplet (large respiratory droplets, less than 1 metre) Vehicle – (food/water etc.) Vector (living animals/insects)

12 Standard Precautions are defined as the basic work practices required to provide a minimum level of infection control. They are recommended for the treatment and care of all clients regardless of the clients’ diagnosis or presumed infectious status. Why would this be so?? Activity Question.

13 Standard Precautions. Continued…
Work practices that are used in all circumstances to achieve a basic level of infection control They are aimed at reducing the spread of infections They apply to all clients regardless of known infectious status They are aimed to protect the Health Care Worker as well as the client.

14 Standard Precautions. Continued…
Used for all clients, regardless of infectious status Used when risk of exposure to blood or body fluids Blood (including dried blood) All other body fluids, secretions & excretions Open wounds/broken skin Mucous membranes

15 Standard Precautions. Continued…
Apply to – Hand hygiene Personal protective equipment (PPE) Immunisation Aseptic technique for wound care Safe handling of sharps

16 Standard Precautions. Continued…
HAND HYGIENE Is the most important precaution to prevent the transmission of infection

17 Additional Precautions
Are used in ADDITION to Standard Precautions. They are used when Standard Precautions are not enough to prevent transmission of organisms. They are work practices that interrupt the spread of a known infection eg: gastroenteritis

18 Additional Precautions. Continued…
Address the different ways in which organisms are transmitted: Airborne Droplet Direct / Indirect Contact

19 Risk Management Look after your own safety
Do not place others at risk. You must report & document any outbreaks or suspicions of outbreak Use PPE and clothing Comply with policies, procedures, instructions, practices and legislative requirements of the organisation

20 Privacy & Confidentiality
Principles guide the: Collection Use & disclosure – only disclose necessary & relevant info. Storage & quality Transfer of personal information

21 Legislation & Standards
South Australian legislation National legislation Australian & New Zealand Standards

22 Accreditation & Infection Control
It is essential to ensure that you check, follow and abide by the procedures set out in your organisations policies and procedures in relation to infection control Standard 4.7 – “an effective infection control program” Implications for care provided, eg: handwashing, use of PPE, etc LOGBOOK activity.

23 Conclusion Remember privacy and confidentiality Legislation
Policies and Procedures Personal protective equipment HAND HYGIENE

24 Conclusion Principles of infection control apply in all settings
Standard Precautions should be applied to all work practices Additional precautions apply when preventing the transmission of known infections

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