2 Review What is the difference between Ventilation and Respiration? How are External and Internal Respiration different?Name the organs of the Upper Resp Tract. What are the 3 functions of the Nasal Cavity?How many bones make up the sinuses?
3 Name the organs of the Lower Respiratory Tract.  What 3 actions do the sinuses do?What is another name for the Pharynx?Name the 3 parts of the Pharynx/locations.What is another name for the voicebox?
4 What type of tissue lines the Respiratory Tract? What’s its function?What is the flap that covers the Trachea? What is its function?What is the trachea made of? Shape?What is the name where the trachea branches into the bronchi?
5 Ventilation [Breathing]- the act of moving air in/out of the lungs Respiration- process where ventilation occurs along with the exchange of gases in the lungs and the body tissues
6 Types of RespirationExternal Respiration-exchange of gases between air in lungs and blood [alveoli and pulm. capillaries]Internal Respiration-exchange of gases between the blood streamand body’s tissues
9 Upper Respiratory Tract Nosemade of bone and cartilagenares/nostrils-openings guarded by hairs that filterNasal Cavity-divided sagitally by nasal septum-lined with mucous membraneWarms airMoistens airTraps particles
11 Nasal Conchae [superior, middle, inferior turbinate] -bony, scroll like projections on lateral wall of each cavity-increase surface area inside [helps mucous membrane]-channel and speed up airflow through noseSinuses[paranasal]-air filled hollow spaces inside 4 bones of skull[ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary and frontal bones]- positioned around nose-lined with mucous membraneDrain fluidsDecrease weight of skullResonate the voice
16 Pharynx [throat]-3 regions: Nasopharynx-posterior to nasal cavityOropharynx-posterior to oral cavityLaryngopharynx- posterior to larynx [voicebox]*Pseudostratified ciliated epithelial tissue lines most of tract.Cilia encourages flow of mucous-trapped particles travel down esophagus into stomach
18 Lower Respiratory Tract Larynx [voicebox]-walls made of cartilage-Thyroid cartilage [adam’s apple]-Epiglottic cartilage- covered with mucous membrane-epiglottis blocks opening to trachea [glottis] whenswallowingFalse Vocal cords- musc/conn. tissue; same function as epiglottisTrue Vocal cords- musc/elastic fibers; vibrate with air passage; helps form words
22 Trachea [windpipe]-Anterior to esophagus-4-5 inches long-Connects larynx to thoracic cavity-Divides inferiorly at an area called the carina, into R and L primary bronchi (each lung)-Lined w/ciliated mucous membrane-Made of “C”-shaped cartilage rings allowing for expansion of esophagus when consuming food-Also smooth muscle
26 Primary bronchi lead into the lungs and divide to form the bronchial tree Primary bronchi secondary bronchi tertiary bronchi bronchioles alveolar ducts alveoli
27 Lungs [Right and Left] -Right – 3 lobes (upper, middle, lower) – divided by 2 fissures (horizontal b/w upper and middle lobes; oblique fissure b/w middle and lower)-Left - 2 lobes (upper, lower)– divide by oblique fissure. Lung is slightly smaller to accommodate space for the heart
29 Pleural Cavity-double-layered membrane covering-visceral pleura: inner layer on the lung surface-parietal pleura: outer layer lines the inside of the thoracic cavity-space in b/w the pleural layers filled with serous fluid to reduce friction as lungs inflate and deflate.Pleurisy- infection of the pleural layers. Reduced serous fluid and increased friction when breathing
31 -Serous fluid creates surface tension b/w the pleural layers-keeps them adhered to each other-essential for keeping the lungs inflated.When the outer pleural membrane (parietal pl.) moves outward because it is attached to the thoracic wall ,the inner pleural layer (visceral pl.) moves with it.Pneumothorax: air gets in the pleural spaceAtelectasis: too much air gets in the pleural space disrupting surface tension b/w the pleural layers and causes collapsed lung.