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Respiratory System Unit 4. Review  What is the difference between Ventilation and Respiration?  How are External and Internal Respiration different?

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Unit 4. Review  What is the difference between Ventilation and Respiration?  How are External and Internal Respiration different?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System Unit 4

2 Review  What is the difference between Ventilation and Respiration?  How are External and Internal Respiration different?  Name the organs of the Upper Resp Tract. [4]  What are the 3 functions of the Nasal Cavity?  How many bones make up the sinuses?

3  Name the organs of the Lower Respiratory Tract. [6]  What 3 actions do the sinuses do?  What is another name for the Pharynx?  Name the 3 parts of the Pharynx/locations.  What is another name for the voicebox?

4  What type of tissue lines the Respiratory Tract?  What’s its function?  What is the flap that covers the Trachea? What is its function?  What is the trachea made of? Shape?  What is the name where the trachea branches into the bronchi?

5  Ventilation [Breathing]- the act of moving air in/out of the lungs  Respiration- process where ventilation occurs along with the exchange of gases in the lungs and the body tissues

6 Types of Respiration  External Respiration -exchange of gases between air in lungs and blood [alveoli and pulm. capillaries]  Internal Respiration -exchange of gases between the blood stream and body’s tissues

7  Upper Respiratory Tract Organs - Nose, Nasal Cavity, Sinuses, Pharynx  Lower Respiratory Tract Organs - Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, Bronchial Tree, Alveoli

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9 Upper Respiratory Tract Nose - made of bone and cartilage - nares/nostrils-openings guarded by hairs that filter Nasal Cavity -divided sagitally by nasal septum -lined with mucous membrane 1. Warms air 2. Moistens air 3. Traps particles

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11  Nasal Conchae [superior, middle, inferior turbinate] -bony, scroll like projections on lateral wall of each cavity -increase surface area inside [helps mucous membrane] -channel and speed up airflow through nose Sinuses[paranasal] -air filled hollow spaces inside 4 bones of skull [ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary and frontal bones] - positioned around nose -lined with mucous membrane 1. Drain fluids 2. Decrease weight of skull 3. Resonate the voice

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16  Pharynx [throat] -3 regions: Nasopharynx-posterior to nasal cavity Oropharynx-posterior to oral cavity Laryngopharynx- posterior to larynx [voicebox] *Pseudostratified ciliated epithelial tissue lines most of tract. Cilia encourages flow of mucous -trapped particles travel down esophagus into stomach

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18 Lower Respiratory Tract  Larynx [voicebox] -walls made of cartilage -Thyroid cartilage [adam’s apple] -Epiglottic cartilage- covered with mucous membrane -epiglottis blocks opening to trachea [glottis] when swallowing False Vocal cords- musc/conn. tissue; same function as epiglottis True Vocal cords- musc/elastic fibers; vibrate with air passage; helps form words

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22  Trachea [windpipe] -Anterior to esophagus -4-5 inches long -Connects larynx to thoracic cavity -Divides inferiorly at an area called the carina, into R and L primary bronchi (each lung) -Lined w/ciliated mucous membrane -Made of “C”-shaped cartilage rings allowing for expansion of esophagus when consuming food -Also smooth muscle

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26 Primary bronchi lead into the lungs and divide to form the bronchial tree Primary bronchi  secondary bronchi  tertiary bronchi  bronchioles  alveolar ducts  alveoli

27 Lungs [Right and Left] -Right – 3 lobes (upper, middle, lower) – divided by 2 fissures (horizontal b/w upper and middle lobes; oblique fissure b/w middle and lower) -Left - 2 lobes (upper, lower) – divide by oblique fissure. Lung is slightly smaller to accommodate space for the heart

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29 Pleural Cavity -double-layered membrane covering -visceral pleura: inner layer on the lung surface -parietal pleura: outer layer lines the inside of the thoracic cavity -space in b/w the pleural layers filled with serous fluid to reduce friction as lungs inflate and deflate. Pleurisy- infection of the pleural layers. Reduced serous fluid and increased friction when breathing

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31 -Serous fluid creates surface tension b/w the pleural layers -keeps them adhered to each other -essential for keeping the lungs inflated.  When the outer pleural membrane (parietal pl.) moves outward because it is attached to the thoracic wall,the inner pleural layer (visceral pl.) moves with it.  Pneumothorax: air gets in the pleural space  Atelectasis: too much air gets in the pleural space disrupting surface tension b/w the pleural layers and causes collapsed lung.

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