3Positions and Directions Introduction to AnatomyPositions and DirectionsProne : Lying face downSupine : Lying face upUnilateral : Pertaining to one side of the bodyBilateral : Pertaining to both sides of the body
4Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical PlanesFixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structuresAllow one to obtain a three-dimensional perspective by studying the body from different viewsexplanation of planes of motion videopdf file- intro to anatomy
5Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical PlanesSagittal PlanSagittal planeThe plane dividing the body into right and left portionsAlso anteroposteriorMidsagittal or median are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves
6Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical PlanesFrontal planeThe plane dividing the body into front and back portionsAlso called the Coronal plane
7Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical PlanesHorizontal planeThe horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portionsAlso called the Transverse plane
8Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical AxesAn axis is a straight line around which an object rotates. Movement at the joint take place in a plane about an axis. There are three axis of rotation.THE GENERAL RULE: The axis of rotation is perpendicular to the plane of movement.
9Rotation of extremities, Axial rotation Introduction to AnatomyRelationship Between Planes and AxesAxis of RotationPlane of MotionExampleFrontalSagittalFlexion, ExtensionLongitudinal(vertical)Horizontal(Transverse)Rotation of extremities, Axial rotation(Coronal)Abduction, Adduction
10Introduction to Anatomy Describe the following motions in terms of its plane of motion.CartwheelBack somersaultHead spinPirouetteSide hopsSplitFront rollFrontalSagittalTransverse or horizontal
11Introduction to Anatomy Describe the following motions in terms of its plane of motion & axis of rotationPlane AxisSagittal frontalFrontal sagittalTransverse longitudinal(Horizontal)Shoulder flexion/extensionHip abductionHead rotation
12How do we train our bodies? Introduction to AnatomyMoving in the three planes of motionHow do we train our bodies?Consider the following:•Which planes of motion?• Think of gym equipment (machines vs free weights)• Function activities – daily life activities• Movements in sports
13Our bodies generally move in more than one plane at a time. Introduction to AnatomyMoving in the three planes of motionOur bodies generally move in more than one plane at a time.Moving in the 3 planes of motion clipsWhich plane of movement is usually neglected in training?Answer: Transverse (horizontal) Plane
14Introduction to Anatomy Assignment:For each plan of motion list and describe 3 exercises/ warm-ups.Your description should include what plane(s) it is moving in and which axis (axes) is/are involved.If you choose a multi-joint exercise you only need to describe one joint during the exercise. (Name that joint in your description)You can include pictures in your description.
16Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to AnatomyTerms of Position & DirectionSuperior (cranial) is a term used to describe a place that is toward the upper part of the body. For example the skull is superior to the shoulders. Superior can also be used to mean above.When the lower part of the body (or below is referred to, the term inferior (caudal) is used. For example, the knees are inferior to the shoulders.
17Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to AnatomyTerms of Position & DirectionLateral means towards the side of the body or away from the middle imaginary body line (the midline). For example, the humerus is lateral to the sternumMedial is used to describe the position of a part of the body located towards the midline. For example, coccyx is medial to the carpals.
18Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to AnatomyTerms of Position & DirectionAnterior (ventral) is used to describe the front or towards the front of the body. For example, the sternum is anterior to the vertebrae.Posterior (dorsal) is used to describe the back of the body. For example, the vertebral column is posterior to the sternum.
19Introduction to Anatomy Terms of Position & DirectionProximal means closer to the center of the body. For example, the shoulder is proximal in relation to the hand.Distal means away from the center of the body. For example, the hand is distal in relation to the head.These are only used when discussing limbs
20Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to AnatomyTerms of Position & DirectionIpsilateral means ‘on the same side’ of a reference point.Contralateral means ‘on the opposite side’ of a reference point.
21Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to AnatomyTerms of Position & DirectionSuperficial refers on the surface or exterior.Deep refers to internal or inside.A structure closer to the surface of the body is superficial, while a structure further away from the surface is deep.
22Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to AnatomyTerms of Position & DirectionActivity:Give an example of the use of the following terms in relation to body parts, bones or muscles:e.g. “the patella is _________ to the scapula.”Inferior/Superior : Caudal/CranialProximal/DistalMedial/LateralPosterior/Anterior : Dorsal/VentralSuperficial/DeepIpsilateral/Contralateral
23Movements Movements of the body video Flexion Extension Hyperextension AdductionAbductionProntaionSupinationRetractionProtractionElevationDepressionRotationCircumductionExternal RotationInternal RotationInversionEversionDorsiflexionPlantarflexionRadial DeviationUlnar DeviationOppositionMovements of the body video
24Introduction to Anatomy MovementsFlexionBending a joint or decreasing the angle between two bonesIn the Fetal Position we are flexing our jointsExtensionStraightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bonesIn the Anatomical Position we are extending our jointsHyperextensionExcessive extension of the parts at a joint beyond anatomical position.
26Introduction to Anatomy MovementsAdductionMoving a body part towards the midline of the bodyAbductionMoving a body part away from the midline of the body
27Introduction to Anatomy MovementsPronationTurning the arm or foot downward(palm or sole of the foot - down)ProneSupinationTurning the arm or foot upward(palm or sole of the foot - up)SupineOver-pronation in the ankle
28Introduction to Anatomy MovementsRetraction - Moving a part backwardProtraction - Moving a part forwardElevation - Raising a partDepression - Lowering a part(Occurs at the shoulders as well)
29Introduction to Anatomy MovementsRotationTurning on a single axisCircumductionTri-planar, circular motion at the hip or shoulderInternal rotationRotation of the hip or shoulder toward the midlineExternal rotationRotation of the hip or shoulder away from the midline
30Introduction to Anatomy MovementsLateral FlexionSide-bending left or right
31Introduction to Anatomy Movements of the footInversionTurning the sole of the foot inwardEversionTurning the sole of the foot outwardDorsiflexionAnkle movement bringing the foot towards the shinPlantarflexionAnkle movement pointing the foot downward
32Movements of the wrist & thumb Introduction to AnatomyMovements of the wrist & thumbRadial DeviationMovement of the wrist towards the radius or lateral side.Ulnar DeviationMovement of the wrist towards the ulna or medial side.OppositionMovement of the thumb across the palm of the hand.