2Proclamation of 1763Prohibited colonist from moving west of the Appalachian MountainsColonist saw it as a limit on their freedom
3Revenue French and Indian war left Britain with a huge debt. They decide to charge the colonistsHow?TAXES
4Trade Lawswrits of assistance, 1763 – legal documents allowed customs officers to search any location for smuggled goodsSugar Act: Placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies.Stamp Act: Required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid.
5Colonist Begin to Protest Colonist merchants began a boycott of British goods.Patrick Henry persuading burgesses to take action.“give me liberty or give me death”Secret societies began to form:Sons of Liberty - Many were lawyers, merchants, and craftspeople - those most affected by the Stamp Act, leader Samuel AdamsBurned effigies (rag figures), raided/destroyed royal official homes
6Declaratory Act Due to protests, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Parliament then passes the Declaration Act – 1766, giving Britain supreme authority to govern the colonies.
7More British ActionsTownshend Acts: Placed taxes on goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea.Colonist saw the Townshend Acts as a serious threat to their rights and freedoms.
8Tools of ProtestTo protest the Townshend Acts, colonists brought back the boycott of British goods.Even more widespreadDaughters of Liberty called on colonists to weave their own cloth and use American products.
9Vocabulary: revenue writs of assistance resolution effigy boycott nonimportationrepealmaking moneylegal documents allowing officers to enter & search any location for smuggled goodsa formal expression of opinionrag figuresto refuse to buynot to buy or use goods imported from Great Britainto cancel
10Questions:State two reasons for the deterioration of relations between the British and the colonists.Why did the colonists think the writs of assistance violated their rights?Why did British policies following the French and Indian War lead to increased tensions with American colonists?
11The Boston MassacreOn March 5, 1770, a group of youth and dock workers - including Crispus Attucks started trading insults in front of the Custom House. A fight broke out, and the soldiers began firing. Attucks and four laborers were killed. Crispus Attucks became the first man to die in the Revolutionary War.Sons of Liberty called the shooting the Boston Massacre.
12The Tea ActColonist were unaware that on the day of the Boston Massacre, Parliament proposed a repeal of the Townshend Acts. This eased the crisis for most Americans at the time.In 1773, Parliament opened an old wound by passing the Tea Act.The Tea Act gave the British East India Company control over the American tea trade.
13The Tea Act Continued.The Tea Act caused protests all over the colonies.In Charleston SC, colonist unloaded tea and let it rot on the docks.In NY and PA, they forced tea ships to turn back.In Boston, the Sons of Liberty organized what is known as the Boston Tea Party.
14Boston Tea PartyDecember 16, 1773, a group of men disguised as Indians boarded three tea ships and destroyed 342 chests of tea.Many colonist rejoiced about the tea party, and thought it would show Britain how much they opposed taxation without representation.
15Boston Tea PartyKing George III said, “We must master them or totally leave them alone.”Britain decided to “Master” the colonies and passed a series of laws to punish the colonists.
16The Intolerable ActsBritish called these new laws the Coercive Acts, but they were so harsh that the colonist called them the Intolerable Acts.Closed the port of Boston until tea paid forBanning of town meetingQuartering Act: required colonists to house soldiers in their homes and provide them with suppliesRoyal offers to stand trial in other colonies or Britain
17Vocabulary: propaganda committee of correspondence information designed to influence opinionan organization used in earlier protests that circulated writing about colonists’ grievances against Britian
18Questions:How did colonial leaders use the Boston Massacre to their advantage?Why were the committees of correspondence powerful organizations?Do you think the Tea Party was a turning point in the relationship between the British and the colonists? Explain.
19First Continental Congress In September 1774, delegates from all colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia.Statement of grievancesBoycott of all British goods and tradeTraining of troops (militia)
20The First BattlesThe colonists expected fighting to break out against the British.Britain sent several thousand more troops.Sir Thomas Gage had instructions to take away the weapons of the MA militia and arrest its leaders.
21The Midnight RideRegiment spotted in Boston Common marching out of the city.Paul Revere and William Dawes were warned.They rode to Lexington to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock.As Revere rode, he shouted, “the regulars are out!” to the people and houses
22Lexington April 19, 1775, British troops reached Lexington. They found Captain John Parker and about 70 minutemen waiting.Colonists told to throw down their weapons, NOT!A shot was fired, but one knows who fired first.Within a few minutes, 8 minutemen lay dead.
23On to Concord The British continued their marched to Concord. Now back to Boston where about 4,000 Minutemen lined the road.They militia fired on the Redcoats until they reached Boston where 73 British were dead, 174 wounded or missing.49 Colonist dead, 41 wounded.Ralph Waldo Emerson later wrote that colonial troops had fired the “shot heard ‘round the world.”
24More military action Benedict Arnold Ethan Allen Raising a force to seize Fort TiconderogaStrategic location and rich in military suppliesEthan AllenAlso preparing to attack fortMerged forces and renamed the Green Mountain BoysCaught British by surpriseBritish surrendered May 10, 1775
25The Battle of Bunker Hill June 16, 1775 – Colonel William PrescottAttacked by British 3 times with successOn 4th attack, American ran out of gunpowder and had to withdrawBritish won battle but still suffered heavy lossesMore than 1,000 deadAdmitted defeating Americans on battlefield would not be quick or easy
26Choosing SidesAs colonists heard about battles, they had to make a decision:Loyalists chose to stay with Britain and did not consider unfair taxes and regulations good reasons for rebellion.Patriots were the rebels who were determined to fight the British to the end.
27Vocabulary: militia minutemen loyalist patriots groups of citizen soldierscompanies of militia who boasted they could be ready to fight on a minutes’ noticecolonists who would stay with Britainrebel colonists determined to fight the British
28Questions What decisions were made by the first Continental Congress? Why did the Continental Congress pass a resolution to form militias?What reasons might loyalists have had to support Great Britain?
29Second Continental Congress On May 10, 1775 the Second Continental Congress began meeting in Philadelphia.Chose John Hancock as presidentBegan governing coloniesAuthorized printing of moneyFirst post office with Benjamin Franklin in chargeContinental Army created & chose George Washington as the commanding General.
30Last Hope for PeaceIn July 1775, Congress drafted the Olive Branch Petition.It asked George III to protect the colonists rights.King George III rejected and announced new measures to punish the colonists by:Blocking American portsHiring thousands of German troops
31Common Sense 1776, by Thomas Paine Pamphlet calling for American Independence.Called George III “the Royal Brute.”Inspired thousands of Americans
32Decision TimeMay 1776, congress passed resolution allowing all 13 colonies to establish its own government.June 7, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution calling for “free and independent states”Congress debated the resolution but did not vote. They appointed a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence.
33Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson led the committee with assistance from Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston were the appointed committee.July 2, Congress passed Lee’s resolution for independence.July 4, Congress signed Declaration of Independence.
34Some humor to the changes. . . John Hancock was the first to sign.He said he signed his name large enough so that King George could see it without his glasses
35Five Parts of the Declaration of Independence Preamble:states the reasons for forming a new countryRights of the People:Per John Locke’s influence who states that people are born with certain natural rights“Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”
36Complaints against Britain – taxation without representation, cutting off trade. Actions taken to avoid Declaration – petitions for redress.Proclaims the existence of a new nation – their Declaration of Independence.
38Questions:What was King George III’s response to the Olive Branch Petition?Why was the second Continental Congress more like a government that the First Continental Congress?What are the “unalienable rights” to which Jefferson refers? Give examples.