2Index Section 1: The Colonies fight for their rights. Section 2: The Revolution BeginsSection 3: The War for IndependenceSection 4: The War Changes American Society
3BellringerI worked to unite all Bostonians to oppose British tax polices and helped the Massachusetts assembly organize resistance against Britain by coauthoring a “circular letter”. Who am I?Benjamin FranklinPatrick HenryThomas JeffersonSamuel Adams
5Bellringer The Stamp Act outraged colonists because It made sending letters more expensive.The stamps were printed in England, not in the colonies.It was the first direct tax on the colonists.All the land between the new states and the Mississippi River.
9BellringerAs a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, The new United States acquiredThe area that would later become Alaska.The area that would later become Oregon and Washington.Florida.All the land between the new states and the Mississippi River.
11BellringerA major weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation wasThe lack of a strong central government.An overzealous judiciary.A legislature that had so many members that it was difficult to make decisions.The lack of a process for amending the Articles.
13BellringerThe purpose of the so-called Three-Fifths Compromise was to determineHow senators would be elected to Congress from each state.How power would be divided between an upper house and a lower house in congress.How African Americans would be counted for representation in Congress and for taxation.How power would be shared between the federal government and the states.
15Ch 4-1: The Colonies Fight for their Rights The French and Indian War (A.K.A. The Seven Years War)Began as a result of struggle between British and French for control in the Colonies.Fighting began in colonies and later spread to EuropeAlliesFrench-Huron Indians and later Spain and Delaware Indians.British- Colonists and later Iroquois Indian Tribes.George Washington chosen by British to lead forces against French in New England.
16Ch. 4-1 cont. The Albany Conference 7 colonists were sent to meet with 150 Iroquois leader in Albany, New York to prepare for war with France.Achievements:Iroquois remained neutralAgreed to choose a single British commanderAlbany Plan of UnionCreated by Benjamin FranklinProposed that the colonies united to form a federal government.Plan was rejected.
17Ch. 4-1 cont. Turning Point: Treaty of Paris In 1755 French and Native American forces ambushed the British troops near Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania.Fighting spread to Europe (Seven Years War)British Navy cuts off French supplies in the Americas.1759- British defeat the French troops in Quebec.Fighting continues until 1763.Treaty of ParisEnded the WarFrench kicked out of North AmericaBritish takes control New France (Canada) and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans.Spain gave Florida to British in return for Cuba and Phillipines which the British had seized.France gave Spain New Orleans and all Louisiana west of Mississippi River.
19Ch. 4-1 cont. The Colonies Grew Discontented The Proclamation Act of 1763:British planned to tax the colonies to pay off debt from French and Indian War.Pontiac and other Native American tribes attacked forts on the frontier. As a result the British issued the Proclamation Act of 1763.Drew a line from north to south along the Appalachian Mountains and declared that colonists could not settle west of the line without the British Government’s permission.Customs ReformGeorge Grenville issued taxes or custom duties to pay for debt.Merchants smuggled goods in and out of America to avoid customs duties.Grenville convinced Parliament to pass a law that sent smugglers to a new vice-admiralty court in Nova Scotia run by naval officers who were unsympathetic to smugglers.Denied Colonist rightsTrial by juryDidn’t follow British common lawRight to trial by jury of peersRight to speed trial.
20Ch. 4-1 John Hancock was among those tried for smuggling. Sugar Act Defended by John AdamsFound GuiltyAdams argued that the use of vice-admiralty courts denied colonists their rights as British citizens.Sugar ActAKA American Revenue Act of 1764Changed the tax rates levied on raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign colonists. It also placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento and indigo.Allowed British troops to seize goods without due process.Samuel Adams along with James Otis wrote a pamphlet that argued the colonists had no representatives in Parliament. “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”.Currency Act of 1764 issued to slow inflationBanned the use of paper money in the colonies.Angered colonial farmers and artisans. They used paper money to pay back loans.
21Ch. 4-1 cont. Stamp Act Crisis To raise more money to pay for the war, Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765.Stamps were required on most printed materials. The stamp tax was the first direct tax Britain had ever placed on the colonists.The Quartering Act,Passed by Parliament in 1765Forced the colonists to pay more for their own defense by providing places to stay for British troops in the colonies.By the summer of 1765, mass meetings and demonstrations against the stamp tax took place in the colonies.Colonist ignored Stamp Act. Colonial merchants signed a nonimportation agreement. The protests led to the Stamp Act being repealed in 1766.Parliament, in an effort to assert its control over the colonies, passed the Declaratory Act, which gave them the power to make laws for the colonies.
22Ch. 4-1 cont. The Townshend Acts Townshend Acts. 1767-Introduced by Charles Townshend.Revenue Act of 1767 placed new customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colonies.Writs of assistanceSeize property without following due process.Letters from a Pennsylvania FarmerJohn Dickinsonstressed that only assemblies elected by colonists had the right to tax them.Protest Townshend Acts.
23Ch. 4-1 cont. Townshend Acts cont. Virginia Resolves Sons of Liberty Only the House had the right to tax Virginians.Dissolved the Virginia House of Burgesses.House of Burgesses passed non-importation laws.Sons of LibertyThe Sons of Liberty encouraged colonists to support the boycott of British goods.Daughters of LibertyBegan creating homespun and stopped drinking tea.Boston MassacreOn March 5, 1770, British troops fired into a crowd of colonists in Boston.Crispus Attucks and Michael Johnson were killed.The British were viewed as tyrants who were killing people standing up for their rights.In response, Britain repealed the Townshend Acts, leaving only one tax—on tea—to uphold its right to tax the colonies.
24Ch. 4 Section 2: The Revolution Begins Massachusetts Defies BritainGaspee AffairBritain sent patrol ships to catch smugglers.Patrol ship- Gaspee- was ran aground and was seized by colonists.Suspects were taken to England for trial.Violation of Trial by Jury of Peers.Thomas Jefferson wanted colonies to create Committee of Correspondence to communicate about British actions.Boston Tea PartyBritish East India Company was going Bankrupt.Lord North passed the Tea Act of 1773Made East India’s tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch teaAmerican merchants feared it was the first step by the British to force them out of business.December 1773, tea ships from the East India Company arrived in Boston Harbor. Colonists boarded the ship and dumped the tea into the harbor.Led By Samuel Adams.
25Ch. 4-2 cont. British Reaction Coercive Acts These acts were an attempt to stop colonial challenges of British authority.The Coercive Acts violated several English rightsthe right to trial by a jury of one’s peersthe right not to have troops quartered in one’s home.The Quebec Act gave more territory to Quebec and stated that a governor and council appointed by the king would run Quebec.This further angered the colonists because if they moved west, they would be living in territory with no elected assemblyThe Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act became known as the Intolerable Acts.
26Ch. 4-2 cont. The Revolution Begins First Continental Congress Philadelphia -1774Declaration of Rights and GrievancesJoseph Gallaway introduced a federal government for the colonies similar to the Albany Plan.loyalty to the king but condemned the Coercive Acts and announced that the colonies were forming a nonimportation association.The delegates also approved the Continental Association, a plan for every county and town to form committees to enforce a boycott of British goods.The Revolution BeginsStart of WarIn the summer and fall of 1774, the British officials lost control of the colonies as the colonists created provincial congresses and militias raided military depots for ammunition and gunpowder.The town of Concord created a special unit of minutemen.
27Ch. 4-2 cont. Loyalist and Patriots Lexington and Concorde Americans called Loyalists, or Tories, remained loyal to the king and felt British laws should be upheld. The group included government officials, prominent merchants, landowners, and a few farmers. Lived in Georgia, Carolinas and New York.The Patriots, or Whigs, thought the British were tyrants. Patriots included artisans, farmers, merchants, planters, lawyers, and urban workers. Strong in New England and Virginia.Lexington and ConcordeOn April 18, 1775, British General Gage and his troops set out to seize the militia’s supply depot at Concord. To get there, they had to pass through Lexington.Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to Lexington to warn the people that the British were coming. Dr. Samuel Prescott went on to warn the people of Concord. When the British arrived in Lexington, about 70 minutemen were waiting for them. The British fired at the minutemen, killing 8 and wounding 10.The British moved on to Concord where they found 400 minutemen waiting for them. The minutemen forced the British to retreat.
28Ch. 4-2 cont. The Second Continental Congress Met in Philadelphia to address the issue of defense.The Congress voted to adopt the militia army around Boston and named it the Continental Army.On June 15, 1775, Congress appointed George Washington to head the Continental Army.The Battle at Bunker Hill resulted in turning back two British advances.The colonial militia only retreated due to a lack of ammunition.It was a huge boost to American confidence that the untrained colonials could stand up to the feared British army.The situation reached a stalemate with the British trapped in Boston surrounded by militia.
29Ch. 4-2 cont. Decision for Independence Olive Branch Petition July 1775It stated that the colonies were still loyal to King George III and asked the king to call off the army while a compromise could be made.At the same time, radicals in Congress had ordered an attack on the British troops in Quebec.This convinced the British that there was no hope of reconciliation. King George refused to look at the Olive Branch Petition.
30Ch. 4-2 cont. Fighting Spread Two Loyalist armies were organized to assist the British troops in Virginia.One was composed of all white loyalists, the other of enslaved Africans. The Africans were promised freedom if they fought for the Loyalist cause.Southern planters, fearing they would loose their lands and labor force, wanted the colonies to declare independence.Patriot troops defeated the British in Norfolk, Virginia; Charles Town, South Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts.In December 1775, the king shut down trade with the colonies and ordered the British navy to blockade the coast. The British began recruiting mercenaries from Germany.
31Ch. 4-2 cont. Common Sense and Independence In January 1776, the persuasive pamphlet called Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, caused many colonists to call for independence from Britain.On July 4, 1776, a committee of Patriot leaders approved a document written by Thomas Jefferson that became known as the Declaration of Independence.
32Chapter 4-3: The War for Independence The Opposing SidesBritishGeneral House32,000 men (Redcoats)Well disciplined, trained and equippedContinentalsGeneral Washington230,000-no more than 20,000 at onceMilitias from each colony-guerilla warfareInexperienced, poorly equipped and paidMoney problems from debtBritish ProblemsPop. Not united for warWar expensiveWanted quick victoryMany European enemies- French, Spanish, DutchAmericans fight war of attrition
334-3 cont. The Northern Campaign Howes 2 part strategy Opening moves Capture New York and demoralize colonistsDiplomatic-try to keep peaceOpening movesWashington defends NYBritish captures NYBrits move to slowlyCrossing the DelawareBrits move toward PhiladelphiaWinter stops fightingDe. 25, 1776 Washington crosses Delaware to TrentonAttacks HessiansPrinceton, New Jersey Washington scatter British
344-3 cont. Philadelphia Falls France Enters the War General Burgoyne plans to isolate NEGen. Howe goes to PhiladelphiaPhilly falls- Continental Congress EscapesWashington goes to Valley ForgeLafayette helps train soldiersFrance Enters the WarBrits unable to defeat Americans in NEBrits defeated at Saratoga NYGeneral Benedict Arnold wins, but doesn’t get credit.Saratoga- turning pointImproved American moralFrance commits troopsSpain and France secretly supply Americans1778 TreatiesFrance recognizes USAlliance between US and France1778- France declares war on Britain1779- Spain declares war on Britain.
354-3 cont. The War in the West The War at Sea What was the West? Brits and Indians uniteAmericans too strongNative Americans were real losers.The War at SeaBritish fleet too strongAttacked British merchant shipsLetter of Marque?John Paul JonesBonhomme RichardSerapis defeated
364-3 cont. The Southern Campaign British focus on the South (1778) More loyalistsTobacco and riceFall of Savannah and Charles TownCornwallis left in commandThe Patriots rallyBritish use brutal treatmentSouthern farmers fight backBattle of Kings Mtn.- Southern turning pointNathanial Greene/Francis Marion-guerrilla tactics
374-3 cont. The War is won Cornwallis invades VA Battle of Yorktown Cornwallis retreats to YorktownWashington and Rochambeau race SouthFrench fleet arrivesCornwallis is cut off and surrendersTreaty of ParisParliament starts negotiationsFranklin, Washington and John JayBritish recognized US as a new country (from Atlantic to Mississippi River)Spain got Florida BackFrance got Caribbean and African colonies back. (taken in 1763)Nov. 24, all Brit. Troops are gone.
38Ch. 4-4 The war Changes American Society New Political IdeasRepublicNew State ConstitutionsWritten downLimits governments power over peopleChecks and BalanceTrue democracy: tyranny of the majorityElected government, Senate and assembliesListed Specific rights
39Ch. 4-4 cont. Cont. Voting Rights Expand Freedom of Religion Feeling of equalityReduced requirements to voteProperty requirement decreasedPower of wealthy decreasesFreedom of ReligionSeparation of Church and stateGovernment aid to churches ends.VA statute for Religious Freedom
40Ch. 4-4 cont. The War and American Society Women at war FarmNurseFightMolly PitcherAfrican AmericansBritish offer FreedomState militia’s and Continental Army offer Freedom5,000 serve in Revolutionary War.North free slavesDiscriminationSouth continues slaveryThe Loyalists FleeProperty seized100,00 left
41Ch. 4-4 cont. An American culture emerges American Painters- symbols and patriotic themes leadersJohn TrumbullChas. Willson PealeChanges in EducationSate Universities (UNC in 1795)Elementary taught American centered themes.Terms to KnowRepublic Emancipation Mary Ludwig HaysVA Statute for Religious Freedom Tyranny of the MajorityEcclesiastical Tyranny Judith Sargent Murray