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The American Revolution

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1 The American Revolution
Chapter 4

2 Index Section 1: The Colonies fight for their rights.
Section 2: The Revolution Begins Section 3: The War for Independence Section 4: The War Changes American Society

3 Bellringer I worked to unite all Bostonians to oppose British tax polices and helped the Massachusetts assembly organize resistance against Britain by coauthoring a “circular letter”. Who am I? Benjamin Franklin Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Samuel Adams

4 Answer D

5 Bellringer The Stamp Act outraged colonists because
It made sending letters more expensive. The stamps were printed in England, not in the colonies. It was the first direct tax on the colonists. All the land between the new states and the Mississippi River.

6 Answer C

7 Bellringer The group that was MOST hurt by the American Revolution was
Federalists. Loyalists. Women. African American.

8 Answer B

9 Bellringer As a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, The new United States acquired The area that would later become Alaska. The area that would later become Oregon and Washington. Florida. All the land between the new states and the Mississippi River.

10 Answer D

11 Bellringer A major weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation was The lack of a strong central government. An overzealous judiciary. A legislature that had so many members that it was difficult to make decisions. The lack of a process for amending the Articles.

12 Answer A

13 Bellringer The purpose of the so-called Three-Fifths Compromise was to determine How senators would be elected to Congress from each state. How power would be divided between an upper house and a lower house in congress. How African Americans would be counted for representation in Congress and for taxation. How power would be shared between the federal government and the states.

14 Answer C

15 Ch 4-1: The Colonies Fight for their Rights
The French and Indian War (A.K.A. The Seven Years War) Began as a result of struggle between British and French for control in the Colonies. Fighting began in colonies and later spread to Europe Allies French-Huron Indians and later Spain and Delaware Indians. British- Colonists and later Iroquois Indian Tribes. George Washington chosen by British to lead forces against French in New England.

16 Ch. 4-1 cont. The Albany Conference
7 colonists were sent to meet with 150 Iroquois leader in Albany, New York to prepare for war with France. Achievements: Iroquois remained neutral Agreed to choose a single British commander Albany Plan of Union Created by Benjamin Franklin Proposed that the colonies united to form a federal government. Plan was rejected.

17 Ch. 4-1 cont. Turning Point: Treaty of Paris
In 1755 French and Native American forces ambushed the British troops near Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania. Fighting spread to Europe (Seven Years War) British Navy cuts off French supplies in the Americas. 1759- British defeat the French troops in Quebec. Fighting continues until 1763. Treaty of Paris Ended the War French kicked out of North America British takes control New France (Canada) and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. Spain gave Florida to British in return for Cuba and Phillipines which the British had seized. France gave Spain New Orleans and all Louisiana west of Mississippi River.

18 Activity

19 Ch. 4-1 cont. The Colonies Grew Discontented
The Proclamation Act of 1763: British planned to tax the colonies to pay off debt from French and Indian War. Pontiac and other Native American tribes attacked forts on the frontier. As a result the British issued the Proclamation Act of 1763. Drew a line from north to south along the Appalachian Mountains and declared that colonists could not settle west of the line without the British Government’s permission. Customs Reform George Grenville issued taxes or custom duties to pay for debt. Merchants smuggled goods in and out of America to avoid customs duties. Grenville convinced Parliament to pass a law that sent smugglers to a new vice-admiralty court in Nova Scotia run by naval officers who were unsympathetic to smugglers. Denied Colonist rights Trial by jury Didn’t follow British common law Right to trial by jury of peers Right to speed trial.

20 Ch. 4-1 John Hancock was among those tried for smuggling. Sugar Act
Defended by John Adams Found Guilty Adams argued that the use of vice-admiralty courts denied colonists their rights as British citizens. Sugar Act AKA American Revenue Act of 1764 Changed the tax rates levied on raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign colonists. It also placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento and indigo. Allowed British troops to seize goods without due process. Samuel Adams along with James Otis wrote a pamphlet that argued the colonists had no representatives in Parliament. “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”. Currency Act of 1764 issued to slow inflation Banned the use of paper money in the colonies. Angered colonial farmers and artisans. They used paper money to pay back loans.

21 Ch. 4-1 cont. Stamp Act Crisis
To raise more money to pay for the war, Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765. Stamps were required on most printed materials. The stamp tax was the first direct tax Britain had ever placed on the colonists. The Quartering Act, Passed by Parliament in 1765 Forced the colonists to pay more for their own defense by providing places to stay for British troops in the colonies. By the summer of 1765, mass meetings and demonstrations against the stamp tax took place in the colonies. Colonist ignored Stamp Act. Colonial merchants signed a nonimportation agreement. The protests led to the Stamp Act being repealed in 1766. Parliament, in an effort to assert its control over the colonies, passed the Declaratory Act, which gave them the power to make laws for the colonies.

22 Ch. 4-1 cont. The Townshend Acts Townshend Acts.
1767-Introduced by Charles Townshend. Revenue Act of 1767 placed new customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colonies. Writs of assistance Seize property without following due process. Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer John Dickinson stressed that only assemblies elected by colonists had the right to tax them. Protest Townshend Acts.

23 Ch. 4-1 cont. Townshend Acts cont. Virginia Resolves Sons of Liberty
Only the House had the right to tax Virginians. Dissolved the Virginia House of Burgesses. House of Burgesses passed non-importation laws. Sons of Liberty The Sons of Liberty encouraged colonists to support the boycott of British goods. Daughters of Liberty Began creating homespun and stopped drinking tea. Boston Massacre On March 5, 1770, British troops fired into a crowd of colonists in Boston. Crispus Attucks and Michael Johnson were killed. The British were viewed as tyrants who were killing people standing up for their rights. In response, Britain repealed the Townshend Acts, leaving only one tax—on tea—to uphold its right to tax the colonies.

24 Ch. 4 Section 2: The Revolution Begins
Massachusetts Defies Britain Gaspee Affair Britain sent patrol ships to catch smugglers. Patrol ship- Gaspee- was ran aground and was seized by colonists. Suspects were taken to England for trial. Violation of Trial by Jury of Peers. Thomas Jefferson wanted colonies to create Committee of Correspondence to communicate about British actions. Boston Tea Party British East India Company was going Bankrupt. Lord North passed the Tea Act of 1773 Made East India’s tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea American merchants feared it was the first step by the British to force them out of business. December 1773, tea ships from the East India Company arrived in Boston Harbor. Colonists boarded the ship and dumped the tea into the harbor. Led By Samuel Adams.

25 Ch. 4-2 cont. British Reaction Coercive Acts
These acts were an attempt to stop colonial challenges of British authority. The Coercive Acts violated several English rights the right to trial by a jury of one’s peers the right not to have troops quartered in one’s home. The Quebec Act gave more territory to Quebec and stated that a governor and council appointed by the king would run Quebec. This further angered the colonists because if they moved west, they would be living in territory with no elected assembly The Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act became known as the Intolerable Acts.

26 Ch. 4-2 cont. The Revolution Begins First Continental Congress
Philadelphia -1774 Declaration of Rights and Grievances Joseph Gallaway introduced a federal government for the colonies similar to the Albany Plan. loyalty to the king but condemned the Coercive Acts and announced that the colonies were forming a nonimportation association. The delegates also approved the Continental Association, a plan for every county and town to form committees to enforce a boycott of British goods. The Revolution Begins Start of War In the summer and fall of 1774, the British officials lost control of the colonies as the colonists created provincial congresses and militias raided military depots for ammunition and gunpowder. The town of Concord created a special unit of minutemen.

27 Ch. 4-2 cont. Loyalist and Patriots Lexington and Concorde
Americans called Loyalists, or Tories, remained loyal to the king and felt British laws should be upheld. The group included government officials, prominent merchants, landowners, and a few farmers. Lived in Georgia, Carolinas and New York. The Patriots, or Whigs, thought the British were tyrants. Patriots included artisans, farmers, merchants, planters, lawyers, and urban workers. Strong in New England and Virginia. Lexington and Concorde On April 18, 1775, British General Gage and his troops set out to seize the militia’s supply depot at Concord. To get there, they had to pass through Lexington. Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to Lexington to warn the people that the British were coming. Dr. Samuel Prescott went on to warn the people of Concord. When the British arrived in Lexington, about 70 minutemen were waiting for them. The British fired at the minutemen, killing 8 and wounding 10. The British moved on to Concord where they found 400 minutemen waiting for them. The minutemen forced the British to retreat.

28 Ch. 4-2 cont. The Second Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia to address the issue of defense. The Congress voted to adopt the militia army around Boston and named it the Continental Army. On June 15, 1775, Congress appointed George Washington to head the Continental Army. The Battle at Bunker Hill resulted in turning back two British advances. The colonial militia only retreated due to a lack of ammunition. It was a huge boost to American confidence that the untrained colonials could stand up to the feared British army. The situation reached a stalemate with the British trapped in Boston surrounded by militia.

29 Ch. 4-2 cont. Decision for Independence Olive Branch Petition
July 1775 It stated that the colonies were still loyal to King George III and asked the king to call off the army while a compromise could be made. At the same time, radicals in Congress had ordered an attack on the British troops in Quebec. This convinced the British that there was no hope of reconciliation. King George refused to look at the Olive Branch Petition.

30 Ch. 4-2 cont. Fighting Spread
Two Loyalist armies were organized to assist the British troops in Virginia. One was composed of all white loyalists, the other of enslaved Africans. The Africans were promised freedom if they fought for the Loyalist cause. Southern planters, fearing they would loose their lands and labor force, wanted the colonies to declare independence. Patriot troops defeated the British in Norfolk, Virginia; Charles Town, South Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. In December 1775, the king shut down trade with the colonies and ordered the British navy to blockade the coast. The British began recruiting mercenaries from Germany.

31 Ch. 4-2 cont. Common Sense and Independence
In January 1776, the persuasive pamphlet called Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, caused many colonists to call for independence from Britain. On July 4, 1776, a committee of Patriot leaders approved a document written by Thomas Jefferson that became known as the Declaration of Independence.

32 Chapter 4-3: The War for Independence
The Opposing Sides British General House 32,000 men (Redcoats) Well disciplined, trained and equipped Continentals General Washington 230,000-no more than 20,000 at once Militias from each colony-guerilla warfare Inexperienced, poorly equipped and paid Money problems from debt British Problems Pop. Not united for war War expensive Wanted quick victory Many European enemies- French, Spanish, Dutch Americans fight war of attrition

33 4-3 cont. The Northern Campaign Howes 2 part strategy Opening moves
Capture New York and demoralize colonists Diplomatic-try to keep peace Opening moves Washington defends NY British captures NY Brits move to slowly Crossing the Delaware Brits move toward Philadelphia Winter stops fighting De. 25, 1776 Washington crosses Delaware to Trenton Attacks Hessians Princeton, New Jersey Washington scatter British

34 4-3 cont. Philadelphia Falls France Enters the War
General Burgoyne plans to isolate NE Gen. Howe goes to Philadelphia Philly falls- Continental Congress Escapes Washington goes to Valley Forge Lafayette helps train soldiers France Enters the War Brits unable to defeat Americans in NE Brits defeated at Saratoga NY General Benedict Arnold wins, but doesn’t get credit. Saratoga- turning point Improved American moral France commits troops Spain and France secretly supply Americans 1778 Treaties France recognizes US Alliance between US and France 1778- France declares war on Britain 1779- Spain declares war on Britain.

35 4-3 cont. The War in the West The War at Sea What was the West?
Brits and Indians unite Americans too strong Native Americans were real losers. The War at Sea British fleet too strong Attacked British merchant ships Letter of Marque? John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard Serapis defeated

36 4-3 cont. The Southern Campaign British focus on the South (1778)
More loyalists Tobacco and rice Fall of Savannah and Charles Town Cornwallis left in command The Patriots rally British use brutal treatment Southern farmers fight back Battle of Kings Mtn.- Southern turning point Nathanial Greene/Francis Marion-guerrilla tactics

37 4-3 cont. The War is won Cornwallis invades VA Battle of Yorktown
Cornwallis retreats to Yorktown Washington and Rochambeau race South French fleet arrives Cornwallis is cut off and surrenders Treaty of Paris Parliament starts negotiations Franklin, Washington and John Jay British recognized US as a new country (from Atlantic to Mississippi River) Spain got Florida Back France got Caribbean and African colonies back. (taken in 1763) Nov. 24, all Brit. Troops are gone.

38 Ch. 4-4 The war Changes American Society
New Political Ideas Republic New State Constitutions Written down Limits governments power over people Checks and Balance True democracy: tyranny of the majority Elected government, Senate and assemblies Listed Specific rights

39 Ch. 4-4 cont. Cont. Voting Rights Expand Freedom of Religion
Feeling of equality Reduced requirements to vote Property requirement decreased Power of wealthy decreases Freedom of Religion Separation of Church and state Government aid to churches ends. VA statute for Religious Freedom

40 Ch. 4-4 cont. The War and American Society Women at war
Farm Nurse Fight Molly Pitcher African Americans British offer Freedom State militia’s and Continental Army offer Freedom 5,000 serve in Revolutionary War. North free slaves Discrimination South continues slavery The Loyalists Flee Property seized 100,00 left

41 Ch. 4-4 cont. An American culture emerges
American Painters- symbols and patriotic themes leaders John Trumbull Chas. Willson Peale Changes in Education Sate Universities (UNC in 1795) Elementary taught American centered themes. Terms to Know Republic Emancipation Mary Ludwig Hays VA Statute for Religious Freedom Tyranny of the Majority Ecclesiastical Tyranny Judith Sargent Murray

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