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The American Revolution Ch 4. Section 1 - Review In 1740 the French and British built forts in the Ohio River Valley to claim the territory which led.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution Ch 4. Section 1 - Review In 1740 the French and British built forts in the Ohio River Valley to claim the territory which led."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Revolution Ch 4

2 Section 1 - Review In 1740 the French and British built forts in the Ohio River Valley to claim the territory which led to the French and Indian War

3 The British formed a conference called the Albany Plan of Union that united the colonies to help push out the French, led by Ben Franklin This was the first time the colonies were united for anything

4 In 1756 the fighting spread to Europe as the Seven Years War The turning point in America was the British victory at Quebec

5 The Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1763 and eliminated most all French power in North America.

6 Colonial Discontent The war put the British into debt Britain wanted the colonies to help pay the debt The Sugar Act was the first attempt to do so

7 Sugar Act The act… Taxed sugar, silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo Colonists argued “taxation without representation” in Parliament

8 Other Acts Stamp Act – taxed printed material, the first direct tax placed on the common man Quartering Act – forced colonist to house British troops in their homes to pay for their defense

9 The Townshend Acts Revenue Act – allowed for general search warrants called writs of assistance British began to seize property without due process

10 Colonial Protest The protests were led by a group called the Sons of Liberty Originally started by Isaac Sears Led by Samuel Adams

11 The colonist boycotted all British goods and passed non- importation laws against British Acts On March 5, 1770 British troops fired on colonist in Boston and killed five in the Boston Massacre

12 Section 2 1772 the British sent the Gaspee, a customs ship, to patrol North American waters. The ship runs aground and is seized by colonist and burned

13 The British took suspects back to England for trial Colonist felt this was a violation of their right to trial by jury

14 Thomas Jefferson created the Committee of Correspondence for colonies to talk to each other about Britain

15 Tea Act / Tea Party The British East India company was going bankrupt In 1773 Parliament passed the Tea Act to tax tea from the Dutch and force colonist to buy from them

16 In December 1773, colonist dumped 342 chests of East India Tea into the Boston Harbor This became known as the Boston Tea Party

17 Proclamation of 1763 King George of England drew a line from north to south along the Appalachian Mountains and declared that colonist couldn’t settle west of the line without permission

18 Intolerable Acts Coercive Acts – four new laws passed by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party Quebec Act – gave more land to Quebec and made it harder for colonist to move west

19 First Continental Congress Met in Philadelphia in 1774 Wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances – which gave loyalty to the king but condemned the Intolerable Acts

20 Revolution Begins The town of Concord created the first Minutemen militia The colonist split into 2 groups Loyalist – (Tories) those still loyal to the king Patriots – (Whigs) wanted independence

21 Lexington and Concord April 18, 1775 British Gen. Gage wanted the arms stockpile at Concord Lexington was on the way Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to warn that “the Red Coats were coming”

22 Second Continental Congress After the victory delegates met to address the issue of defense The Congress adopted the militia and named it the Continental Army with Washington as it’s General

23 Battle of Bunker Hill – huge boost to American confidence that they could stand up to the British army Olive Branch Petition – Continental Congress tried to make peace with King George

24 Jan 1776 Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet “Common Sense” calling for independence July 4 th, 1776 Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress declaring themselves the United States of America

25 The Colonies Advantages Fighting on home ground Good generals Fighting for freedom French Alliance Disadvantages Untrained, small army Food & Ammo shortages Weak, divided central govt. British Advantages Well-trained, well- supplied military Wealth of resources Strong central govt. Disadvantages Fighting in unfamiliar, hostile territory Fighting far away from Britain and resources Troops indifferent, little support at home

26 Northern Campaign British Strategy British Seizure of New York (build up NY &separate NE from other colonies) − Crossing the Delaware River- – Surprise attack on Christmas by Washington ( small victories helped morale ) British Capture of Philadelphia Continental Congress escaped Washington winters at Valley Forge − Morale of soldiers was low (food/cold) − Lafayette/Von Steuben train soldiers Battle of Saratoga-turning point American victory(morale boost) France enters the war

27 War at Sea American Naval Strategy Attacked merchant ships & fleet Issued Letters of Marque − Licenses to private ship owners authorizing them to attack Br. Merchant ships John Paul Jones famous Am. Naval Commander of the Bonhomme Richard “I have not yet begun to fight Victory over British

28 Southern Campaign Strong Loyalist support Fall of Savannah and Charles Town Turning Point in the South British tactics did not work-could not subdue the “overmountain” men Battle that was turning point: − King’s Mountain Famous Am. Soldier who led the way: − Francis Marion (Swamp Fox)

29 American Victory British General Cornwallis tries to take Virginia American Victory at Yorktown Final settlement to end war: Treaty of Paris 1783 Recognition of the United States with Mississippi River as its western border

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