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Trouble on the Frontier

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1 Trouble on the Frontier
Chapter 5: The Road to Revolution ( ) Ch. 5.1: Trouble on the Frontier

2 Trouble on the Frontier
Chapter 5: The Road to Revolution ( ) Ch. 5.1: Trouble on the Frontier Unit 2 Focus Question How did the colonists break away from Britain and create a republican form of government?


4 Why did both France and Britain believe that their territories
Concept: Power Why did both France and Britain believe that their territories in North America were worth fighting over?


6 Eastern North America

7 British North America

8 The French in North America

9 Why would the British be concerned about French forts in the west?

10 The Ohio River Valley

11 What was the significance of “The Forks”?
Forks of the Ohio What was the significance of “The Forks”?

12 Which Indians had claims on the land at “The Forks?”
Native American Lands Which Indians had claims on the land at “The Forks?”

13 (Hint: British, French, Native Americans)
Identify the reasons why fighting broke out between France and Britain in North America (Hint: British, French, Native Americans)

14 Forks of the Ohio (close-up)


16 Conflict Along the Frontier

17 Conflict Along the Frontier
Ft. Duquesne Braddock’s Defeat Ft. Necessity

18 French and Indian War (1754-1763)
☻ France and England (and their Native American allies) fought for control of the Ohio River Valley in North America

19 Albany Congress What was it? What was its purpose?
Why did it fall apart? Why did the colonies reject Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union?


21 Treaty of Paris of 1763 ☻ In 1763, the Treaty of Paris (1763) was signed after the Battle of Quebec and it marked the end of French power in North America ► Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River ► Spain, France’s ally, gave up Florida to the British ► In return, Spain received all French land west of the Mississippi



24 Chapter Focus Question
How did the colonists break away from Britain and create a republican form of government?

25 The Colonists Resist Tighter Control
Chapter 5: The Road to Revolution ( ) Ch. 5.2: The Colonists Resist Tighter Control


27 Pontiac’s War ► Indian nations in the Ohio Valley were upset that Britain was taking over French forts ► The French had been friendly towards the Indians ► The British were allowing settlers to build farms on Indians lands

28 ► Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, led a series of attacks on British forts
► Although it failed, some argue it was the most successful resistance to the European invasion in our history ► After capturing nine frontier forts, one by one, the Indian nations gave up the fight ► Even more settlers poured into the Ohio Valley


30 Proclamation Line of 1763 ☻ To avoid future conflict, the British passed a law which forbade settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains ► This angered many colonists… others simply ignored it (to them, land meant opportunity)

31 Unintended Consequences
► The British have won the war, but they find their vast North American empire difficult to manage: ► Many Indians, tired of British broken promises and disrespect, join together under Chief Pontiac, and launch attacks on British frontier forts ► In an attempt to stop Pontiac’s War, King George issues the Proclamation of 1763, declaring that all lands west of the Allegheny Mountains belong to the Indians ► Colonists take matters into their own hands and begin a campaign of anti-Indian violence

32 Unintended Consequences
► The financial pressure on the colonists mounts as a series of taxes is levied by the British Crown to pay for the war ► Talk of rebellion is in the air

33 Britain Reforms its Colonial System
► Parliament passed a series of laws to regulate trade between England and the colonies… enforcing mercantilism

34 Navigation Acts ► Only colonial or English ships could carry goods to and from the colonies ► Colonial merchants were forbidden to ship certain products to any nation but England (like tobacco and cotton) ► Colonists complained that these acts favored England ► Most all, they did not like the taxes placed on goods like sugar and molasses Note: Although they were only supposed to buy these products from England, the demand was so high that many traded with the Dutch, Spanish, and French in the West Indies

35 ☻ Many New England ships traveled a regular route
☻ Many New England ships traveled a regular route known as the triangular trade


37 New Taxes ☻ The French and Indian War had plunged Britain into debt… colonists were expected to help pay off the debt ☻ Sugar Act (1764)… this placed duties on molasses and sugar ☻ Stamp Act (1765)… this placed a tax on legal documents and paper products (newspapers, wills, marriage papers, even playing cards!)



40 Colonists Protest ► Riots broke out in Boston, Newport, New York, and Charleston


42 ► The British did not understand why the colonists
► The British did not understand why the colonists were so angry about the Stamp Act ► James Otis: “Taxation without representation is tyranny” ► Colonists should only contribute revenue to a government that gave them a vote in how to spend that money ► Taxation without representation violated colonists’ rights as British citizens


44 Stamp Act Congress ► Stamp Act Congress (1765)
► Nine colonies sent delegates to New York ► They sent a protest to Britain stating that the colonists were loyal to Britain ► They declared that the right to tax belongs not to Parliament but to the colonial legislature

45 ► In every city, secret. citizens’ groups. organized to protest
► In every city, secret citizens’ groups organized to protest the Stamp Act ► They discovered their best weapon was to boycott British goods ► As trade with America shrank, British merchants called for a change in colonial policy

46 ► In 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act
► At the same time, it passed the Declaratory Act which stated that Parliament had “full power” over the colonies ► All the colonists cared about was the end of the Stamp Act. The storm seemed to have passed.


48 The Townshend Acts ► Charles Townshend believed his new law
would not upset the colonists because they imposed duties, not direct taxes (It would only tax goods brought into the colonies)

49 ☻ Townshend Acts (1767) ► Placed a tax on goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea ► Allowed customs officials to inspect a ship’s cargo or buildings without reason ► Colonists claimed their English rights protected them from unlawful search and seizure without probable cause ► The colonists learned from their fight against the Stamp Act and used the same tactics against the Townshend Acts ☻ These activities spread the goal of using only American-made products and helped bring colonists together

50 Excerpt from the Townshend Acts

51 Colonial Protests Widen
► Colonists signed nonimportation agreements against goods taxed by the Townshend Acts ► Sons and Daughters of Liberty ► Used intimidation to frighten tax collectors, organized boycotts, etc. ► Advocated the use of American goods… (economic independence!)

52 ► New leaders emerge like Samuel Adams and John Adams
▼ Jon Adams

53 Redcoats in Boston

54 ► Port cities like Boston and New York were centers of protests
► Conflict over the Townshend Acts flared when the merchant ship Liberty entered Boston ► Fearing for their lives, the British officials called for British troops to keep order in Boston ► 1,000 redcoats arrived in Boston harbor ► The decision to quarter troops only made matters worse

55 The Boston Massacre ► March 5, tensions exploded... when the smoke cleared five men lay dead or mortally wounded

56 ► The Sons of Liberty used the incident as
► The Sons of Liberty used the incident as propaganda, or a way of spreading its political views and beliefs ► They called the shooting the Boston Massacre and claimed it showed the dangers of having British troops stationed among colonial citizens ► Colonial fury increased against the British




60 Old State House (site of the Boston Massacre)

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