Presentation on theme: "And the shot heard ’round the world.. The Proclamation of 1763 prohibits colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. The British kept 10,000."— Presentation transcript:
The Proclamation of 1763 prohibits colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. The British kept 10,000 troops in the colonies after the French & Indian War to protect their interests. The colonists were alarmed. They feared that the British will interfere with their liberties. The French and Indian War left Britain with a huge debt. Because they were defending the colonists, they believed the colonists should pay the debt.
British prime minister, George Greenville, decided to put an end to smuggling. No juries for smugglers. Writs of Assistance allowed customs officers to search any location for smuggled goods. Greenville lowers tax in Sugar Act to stop smuggling. The Stamp Act passed in 1765 requires a tax on all printed materials. Affects almost every colonist. Patrick Henry convinces the House of Burgesses to take action- saying only citizens have the right to tax. Samuel Adams starts the Sons of Liberty to protest taxes by boycotts. Burn effigies of tax collectors and tar & feather.
The Stamp Act Congress sends a petition to the king- should only be taxed by own assemblies. They agree to boycott British goods. 1766 Stamp Act repealed. Same day England passes Declaratory Act saying they have the right to tax and make decisions for the colonies in all cases. 1767 Townshend Acts tax every day items like glass, paper, tea & lead. Colonists had to buy these imports. Outraged by ANY tax. Only their own representatives can tax them. Daughters of Liberty encourage women to make their own products instead of buying British-made items. “No taxation without representation” becomes a rallying cry for colonists.
British officials nervous- brink of rebellion. England sends two regiments to Boston. Colonists say they’ve gone too far. 1.Passed laws that violated their rights 2.An army was occupying their city On March 5, 1770, colonists start throwing snowballs, stones, oyster shells at redcoats. They call them names. One soldier is knocked down and another fires. Things were frantic. Five colonists were killed. Americans called it the Boston Massacre. Say it was a “slaughter of innocent Americans by bloodthirsty redcoats.” Used as propaganda to rally the colonists.
Parliament repeals Townshend Acts except on tea. Colonists feel they’ve won and end boycotts. Committees of Correspondence bring together protests opposed to British measures. Britain allows the British East India Company to bypass taxes and sell tea at a lower price. In 1773 the Sons of Liberty throw 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor- the Boston Tea Party. King George III says “we must master the colonists or totally leave them alone.” England passes the Coercive Acts (called Intolerable Acts) to punish the colonists of Massachusetts. 1)Closed Boston Harbor until Tea was paid for 2)British officers accused of crimes were tried in England instead of the colonies 3)Banned town meetings 4)Forced colonists to shelter soldiers in their homes
Meets in 1774 in Philadelphia- challenge the British. Delegates are Sam Adams, Johns Adams, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, & George Washington. They drafted a statement of grievances and asked for a repeal of the 13 acts passed since 1763. They called for people to arm themselves and form militias. The Minutemen were ready. British general Thomas Gage had several thousand men around Boston and orders to take weapons and arrest leaders. He learned weapons were being stored in Concord.
Paul Revere & William Dawes ride to Lexington to warn Sam Adams & John Hancock “the regulars are out.” The first fight was at Lexington. Eight minutemen were killed. The British moved to Concord. Stores were moved. Met Minutemen at the Old North Bridge in April 1775. By the time the British returned to Boston, 174 were wounded and 73 were dead. The shot heard ’round the world had been fired. And the War for Independence had begun.
Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen (with the Green Mountain Boys) work together to take over Fort Ticonderoga. Committees of Correspondence call for volunteers. June 1775- William Prescott is the Commander at Bunker Hill & Breed’s Hill. The British want to drive them from the strategic location. The colonists are low on ammunition. Prescott orders “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” The colonists had to withdraw. British suffered heavy losses in the victory. Colonists now had to make a decision- loyalist or patriot. Loyalist: American colonist who was loyal to the British government. Patriot: American colonist who believed the colonies had the right to govern themselves.
May 10, 1775, Second Continental Congress meets. John Hancock – president. Jefferson, Franklin, Lee, Henry, & Adams are delegates. They begin to govern the colonies. 1.Establish a post office, Ben Franklin postmaster 2.Create a committee to correspond with foreign nations 3.Establish the Continental Army with George Washington as commander Send Olive Branch petition to King George asking for reconsideration- one last chance at peace. He refused to look at it.
Colonists learn that British troops in Canada plan to attack. The decide to attack first. They capture Montreal but not Quebec. Washington goes to Boston and finds the troops undisciplined and untrained. By March 1776 he deems them ready to fight. They attack Boston and drive out the British. Some colonists are still sitting on the fence. Thomas Paine writes Common Sense in 1776. He calls for complete independence and says it is simply common sense to break from the “royal brute.” He inspires thousands of Americans to become Patriots.
Should the colonists declare independence? Main topic of conversation. Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposes independence. Thomas Jefferson is chosen to write a draft. He pulls from John Locke. Locke says people are born with natural rights like life, liberty & property. He says people formed governments to protect these rights. People have the right to overthrow the government if it fails. Resolved: That these colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved of all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances. That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective colonies for their consideration and approbation.
The Declaration of Independence is approved on ***July 4, 1776.*** There are four major sections to the Declaration: 1.Explain why they are breaking away 2.Discuss rights they should have 3.Detail their complaints against Britain 4.Proclaim existence of a new nation The Declaration lists grievances against Britain: 1.Cutting off trade with other nations 2.Imposing taxes without the colonists’ consent The struggle for independence, the American Revolution, had begun.