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Toward Independence Chp.5 Mr. Billela 7 th Grade Social Studies.

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1 Toward Independence Chp.5 Mr. Billela 7 th Grade Social Studies

2 Toward Independence Patriots-believed colonist had right to govern themselves-for independence Patriots-believed colonist had right to govern themselves-for independence Loyalists-Americans who felt loyalty to Britain Loyalists-Americans who felt loyalty to Britain Ally-A nation that joins another nation is some common effort, such as winning a war Ally-A nation that joins another nation is some common effort, such as winning a war

3 Before 1763 Britain for about a 100 years left colonies alone to govern themselves Britain for about a 100 years left colonies alone to govern themselves Each colony elected its own assembly Each colony elected its own assembly Had power to pass laws and create taxes Had power to pass laws and create taxes Settlers moved into the Ohio Valley frontier and traded with the Five Indian Nations Settlers moved into the Ohio Valley frontier and traded with the Five Indian Nations Which became Allies of the British and colonist Which became Allies of the British and colonist

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5 Conflict in the Ohio Valley Britain and France both claimed same land Britain and France both claimed same land France builds fort where Pittsburgh France builds fort where Pittsburgh stands today stands today Called it Fort Duquesne Called it Fort Duquesne

6 Conflict in the Ohio Valley Virginia’s Governor send Militia under the leadership of a young George Washington Washington believed he could get ahead by being a British Officer.

7 Before 1763 Washington and volunteers defeat a French scouting party. Washington and volunteers defeat a French scouting party. (which contained a French ambassador who was sent to spy on the colonies) (which contained a French ambassador who was sent to spy on the colonies) Washington’s men built a fort called Necessity but gave it up in full military honors. Washington’s men built a fort called Necessity but gave it up in full military honors.

8 Before 1763 Washington was accused of assassinating the French Ambassador in the surrender agreement Washington was accused of assassinating the French Ambassador in the surrender agreement Washington was demoted in rank and later quit the army and became a farmer. Washington was demoted in rank and later quit the army and became a farmer. Washington's actions and settlers land claims helped to started the French and Indian War Washington's actions and settlers land claims helped to started the French and Indian War The war lasted seven years. The war lasted seven years.

9 French and Indian War 1400 British soldiers were sent to finish the job that Washington had started British soldiers were sent to finish the job that Washington had started. Leader General Braddock Leader General Braddock Used European Battle tactics that was fatal to the British (fought in columns and charged with frontal assault) Used European Battle tactics that was fatal to the British (fought in columns and charged with frontal assault) French used guerrilla and Indian tactics (hiding behind trees and brush) French used guerrilla and Indian tactics (hiding behind trees and brush)

10 French and Indian War British lost two-thirds of their men because of their red coats and the general’s bad decisions. British lost two-thirds of their men because of their red coats and the general’s bad decisions. Washington had joined the army as a volunteer and ended up saving the rest of the army. Washington had joined the army as a volunteer and ended up saving the rest of the army. The war ended in 1759 when the British troops captured Fort Quebec thus stopping the supply lines feeding the rest of the forts in Canada. The war ended in 1759 when the British troops captured Fort Quebec thus stopping the supply lines feeding the rest of the forts in Canada. In 1763 France signed a treaty giving Canada to Britain. Americans were proud. In 1763 France signed a treaty giving Canada to Britain. Americans were proud.

11 1763  Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.

12 Tension along the Frontier British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt. Fort Detroit 1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion

13 Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)

14 5.3 Early British Action A new king was crowned-George lll A new king was crowned-George lll He was “stupid” according to one historian He was “stupid” according to one historian He was a take-charge kind of King. He was a take-charge kind of King. The king and his advisors knew little about the colonies The king and his advisors knew little about the colonies Took actions that enraged the colonist. Took actions that enraged the colonist.

15 The Proclamation of 1763 British Gov. faced several problems: British Gov. faced several problems: Colonist and Indians were killing each other on the frontier (Pontiac’s war) Colonist and Indians were killing each other on the frontier (Pontiac’s war) British wanted to keep the fur trade to themselves. British wanted to keep the fur trade to themselves. British Gov. need money to pay for the French and Indian War. British Gov. need money to pay for the French and Indian War.

16 Proclamation of 1763 King decided to draw a line down the middle of the Appalachians mountains King decided to draw a line down the middle of the Appalachians mountains No settlers could move to the west, those living in the west had to move back East No settlers could move to the west, those living in the west had to move back East Settlers thought this was tyranny or unjust use of Government power Settlers thought this was tyranny or unjust use of Government power Settlers arguments were ignored. Settlers arguments were ignored. King sent in 7,500 troops- stayed in the cities. King sent in 7,500 troops- stayed in the cities.

17 Backlash: British’s Proclamation of 1763

18 The Stamp Act Prime Minister Grenville has a stamp act passed because the colonist should help pay their fair share of the cost of the war. Prime Minister Grenville has a stamp act passed because the colonist should help pay their fair share of the cost of the war. Tax was on wills, licenses and playing cards. Tax was on wills, licenses and playing cards.

19 Direct and Indirect Tax The colonists were angry that Parliament was levying taxes without (colonial) representatives on their behalf. Direct taxes, such as the Stamp Act, were taxes ADDED TO the price of a good at the time of purchase. It was obvious to the consumer that he was paying extra for a tax levy. Indirect taxes are taxes INCLUDED in the price of the product or service. That way, the consumer did not realize as readily that he was paying a tax.

20 No Taxation without Representation!! Colonist didn’t mind paying taxes levied by their representatives in which they elected. Colonist didn’t mind paying taxes levied by their representatives in which they elected. Colonist were not represented in Parliament and argued that fact! Colonist were not represented in Parliament and argued that fact! No taxation without representation! No taxation without representation! Loyalist refused to buy stamps Loyalist refused to buy stamps Patriots turned to violent actions: tar and feathering and burning tax-collectors homes. Burying a man alive and shoveling dirt on his coffin. These Mobs were called Sons of Liberty. Patriots turned to violent actions: tar and feathering and burning tax-collectors homes. Burying a man alive and shoveling dirt on his coffin. These Mobs were called Sons of Liberty. After months of protest the tax was repealed or canceled. After months of protest the tax was repealed or canceled.

21 Violence Emerged

22 The Quartering Act Parliament in 1765 passed the Quartering Act. Parliament in 1765 passed the Quartering Act. Colonial assemblies had to provide British troops with quarters or housing. Colonial assemblies had to provide British troops with quarters or housing. Furnish the troops with “candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, and ….beer or cider.” Furnish the troops with “candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, and ….beer or cider.” New Jersey and New York refused to obey and their assembles were dismissed. New Jersey and New York refused to obey and their assembles were dismissed. Tensions grew between the colonist and Britain. Tensions grew between the colonist and Britain.

23 5.4 Townshend Acts Charles Townshend becomes the new Prime Minister. Charles Townshend becomes the new Prime Minister. He believes the colonist bad behavior made it even more important to keep an army in America. He believes the colonist bad behavior made it even more important to keep an army in America. Calls for a new tax on popular exported items: glass, lead, paper and tea. Calls for a new tax on popular exported items: glass, lead, paper and tea. Townshend died of flu later on. Townshend died of flu later on.

24 Townshend Acts Colonist boycott British Goods. Colonist boycott British Goods. Boycott means; refuse to buy or purchase certain goods Boycott means; refuse to buy or purchase certain goods Sam Adams organized boycotts of the items and sent letters to other colonies urging them to do the same. Sam Adams organized boycotts of the items and sent letters to other colonies urging them to do the same. This was a peaceful type of protest in which loyalist could support This was a peaceful type of protest in which loyalist could support

25 Townshend Acts Women became protesters by refusing to purchase the goods and made items from home-made clothing to pine needle tea. Women became protesters by refusing to purchase the goods and made items from home-made clothing to pine needle tea. Lord North becomes the Prime Minister has the Townshend Acts repealed except the tax on tea. British merchants applaud his decision because they were losing money. Lord North becomes the Prime Minister has the Townshend Acts repealed except the tax on tea. British merchants applaud his decision because they were losing money.

26 Women Boycotting Tea

27 5.5 The Boston Massacre A brawl broke out between colonist and soldiers in Boston. A brawl broke out between colonist and soldiers in Boston. Started with kids and adults throwing snowballs and rocks and taunting soldiers to fire on them. Started with kids and adults throwing snowballs and rocks and taunting soldiers to fire on them. Soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 people Soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 people One was a black man named Crispus Attucks. One was a black man named Crispus Attucks.

28 Massacre or Self-Defense Sam Adams and Paul Revere used the opportunity to stir-up public opinion by using engraving to promote anti-British feelings. Sam Adams and Paul Revere used the opportunity to stir-up public opinion by using engraving to promote anti-British feelings. Patriots-wanting soldiers out of the colonies Patriots-wanting soldiers out of the colonies Loyalist- needing more soldiers for protection Loyalist- needing more soldiers for protection

29 Massacre or Self-Defense John Adam-cousin of Sam Adams John Adam-cousin of Sam Adams Defends the British soldiers in the Massacre Defends the British soldiers in the Massacre Believed every person had a right to a fair trial, even hated redcoats. Believed every person had a right to a fair trial, even hated redcoats. At the trial argued the soldiers fired in self- defense At the trial argued the soldiers fired in self- defense Six found not guilty, two found guilty of manslaughter (causing death without meaning to.) Six found not guilty, two found guilty of manslaughter (causing death without meaning to.) Adams upheld the LAW! Adams upheld the LAW!

30 Boston Massacre

31 Boston Tea Party 1773 Tea Act passed which prompted the Tea party Tea Act passed which prompted the Tea party. The Act was to help the British East India Company because it was overstocked with tea. The Act was to help the British East India Company because it was overstocked with tea. Boycotts hurt the big tea merchant so much they were going broke. Boycotts hurt the big tea merchant so much they were going broke. The tea act gave BEIC a monopoly on Tea and complete control of the trade. The tea act gave BEIC a monopoly on Tea and complete control of the trade. It made tea cheap!! Even with the tax!!! It made tea cheap!! Even with the tax!!!

32 Boston Tea Party American Tea Merchants were alarmed. American Tea Merchants were alarmed. Citizens could buy the tea direct forcing ATM out of business. Citizens could buy the tea direct forcing ATM out of business. The company chose which merchants could sell their discounted tea. The company chose which merchants could sell their discounted tea. Merchants wondered if this would happen to cloth or sugar? Merchants wondered if this would happen to cloth or sugar? Could their business be restricted? Could their business be restricted?

33 Boston Tea Party December 16,1773 BEIC tea ships arrive in Boston December 16,1773 BEIC tea ships arrive in Boston Governor had the port blocked by British ships until the tea was unloaded Governor had the port blocked by British ships until the tea was unloaded 50 Son of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians unloaded 90,000 pounds of tea (342 chests) and dumped it into the harbor 50 Son of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians unloaded 90,000 pounds of tea (342 chests) and dumped it into the harbor John Adams replied “….it must have….important consequences.” It did! John Adams replied “….it must have….important consequences.” It did!

34 Boston Tea Party

35 5.7 Intolerable Acts Lord North and King George knew it was more about British control than taxes. Lord North and King George knew it was more about British control than taxes. Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts or Coercive Acts. Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts or Coercive Acts. The acts stated: Close the Port of Boston no ship could come in or out. The acts stated: Close the Port of Boston no ship could come in or out. Government of Massachusetts was under British control. Government of Massachusetts was under British control. Town meeting could not be held without the governor’s permission. Town meeting could not be held without the governor’s permission. British soldiers who were accused of murder would be tried in England, not in the colonies. British soldiers who were accused of murder would be tried in England, not in the colonies. More troops would be sent to Boston to enforce new laws. More troops would be sent to Boston to enforce new laws.

36 Martial Law Declared Another result of the Boston Tea Party was that the Massachusetts colony was placed under martial law In martial law, military authority usually takes the place of civilian justice Persons accused of violations of orders under martial law (for example, a curfew) are generally tried by military tribunal or courts martial In some instances, the punishment for violations of martial law may be death even though the civilian law does not allow for capital punishment Martial law in US History is rare, although it was used during the Civil War ( ), and World War II ( )

37 Intolerable Acts Colonies begin to unite Colonies begin to unite Patriots declared they would “abandon their cities to flames” before paying for the tea. Patriots declared they would “abandon their cities to flames” before paying for the tea. Other colonies sent food and money to help Bostonians survive Other colonies sent food and money to help Bostonians survive Virginians called for a congress or meeting of delegates to find a peaceful solution Virginians called for a congress or meeting of delegates to find a peaceful solution Loyalist felt that Bostonians had gone to far and should pay for the tea. If they had to choose they would side with the King. Loyalist felt that Bostonians had gone to far and should pay for the tea. If they had to choose they would side with the King.

38 Intolerable Acts First Continental Congress meets in Sept First Continental Congress meets in Sept delegates met in Philadelphia. Most delegates felt loyalty to their colonies not as a American. 50 delegates met in Philadelphia. Most delegates felt loyalty to their colonies not as a American. Patrick Henry pleaded with delegation to unite together for one cause. Patrick Henry pleaded with delegation to unite together for one cause. Delegation agreed to send a plea to the King to consider their complaints and recognize their rights. Delegation agreed to send a plea to the King to consider their complaints and recognize their rights. Delegation also called for a new boycott on British goods until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. Delegation also called for a new boycott on British goods until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. If Boycott didn’t work the Congress would meet again. If Boycott didn’t work the Congress would meet again. Colonies began to form militias made up of volunteers which could be ready to fight in 60 seconds. (minutemen) Colonies began to form militias made up of volunteers which could be ready to fight in 60 seconds. (minutemen) Gunpowder, cannons and ammunition were stolen from British forts Gunpowder, cannons and ammunition were stolen from British forts The Intolerable Acts had brought the two sides to the brink of war instead of forcing them together. The Intolerable Acts had brought the two sides to the brink of war instead of forcing them together.

39 Lexington and Concord King George refused to read the colonist complaints King George refused to read the colonist complaints “Blows must be decided whether they are to be subject to this country or independent.” “Blows must be decided whether they are to be subject to this country or independent.” April 1775, Gage sends 700 troops to march to Concord and seize weapons in a surprise attack.( a spy told Gage about the arms cache.) April 1775, Gage sends 700 troops to march to Concord and seize weapons in a surprise attack.( a spy told Gage about the arms cache.) Gage had to march his troops 20 miles to get to Concord. Gage had to march his troops 20 miles to get to Concord. Colonist had it own spies. Colonist had it own spies.

40 Lexington and Concord On April 18,1775 On April 18,1775 William Dawes, Paul Revere and William Prescott rode across the country side warning the colonist the British were coming. William Dawes, Paul Revere and William Prescott rode across the country side warning the colonist the British were coming. Only Prescott got through to Concord. Only Prescott got through to Concord. At Lexington a small band of minutemen At Lexington a small band of minutemen Stood their ground as the British approach. Stood their ground as the British approach. A shot rang out and when the smoke cleared eight minutemen lay dead and another ten were wounded. A shot rang out and when the smoke cleared eight minutemen lay dead and another ten were wounded. The British soldiers cheered and moved on to Concord The British soldiers cheered and moved on to Concord

41 Lexington and Concord Dawes took the longer “by land” route across the isthmus of Massachusetts and was able to elude capture by British forces and warned militia at several locations along the route the British traveled to Lexington and Concord. Dawes was thrown from his horse and was captured. Only Prescott was able to make it to Concord Revere was captured, but lied to the British about colonial troop strength, and was eventually released to return to Boston on a poorly rested horse.

42 Lexington and Concord By Breakfast arrived in Concord By Breakfast arrived in Concord Did not find any ammunition, gunpowder or cannons. Did not find any ammunition, gunpowder or cannons. Minutemen had moved it all. Minutemen had moved it all. British soldiers piled up rubbish an burned it. British soldiers piled up rubbish an burned it. The minutemen saw the fire and thought they were burning the town. The minutemen saw the fire and thought they were burning the town. The minutemen met the British soldiers at the Old North Bridge and held their ground firing back at the British. The minutemen met the British soldiers at the Old North Bridge and held their ground firing back at the British.

43 Lexington and Concord

44 The British Soldiers were surprised the minutemen did not retreat but held their ground! The British Soldiers were surprised the minutemen did not retreat but held their ground! British Soldiers began to retreat all the way back to Boston British Soldiers began to retreat all the way back to Boston Four thousand minutemen lined the route back to Boston and opened fired on the British soldiers. Four thousand minutemen lined the route back to Boston and opened fired on the British soldiers. 74 British soldiers died, 200 wounded or missing 74 British soldiers died, 200 wounded or missing 49 minutemen died and 41 were wounded 49 minutemen died and 41 were wounded The British under estimated the American colonist. At concord the Americans showed they would fight for the rights and freedoms. And die for them. The British under estimated the American colonist. At concord the Americans showed they would fight for the rights and freedoms. And die for them.


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