4 China’s Feudal AgeAfter the Zhou dynasty overthrew the Shang dynasty under the Mandate of Heaven, China developed a feudal system.Feudalism - System of government in which local lords governed their own land but owed military service and other forms of support to their rulerFeudalism, which was believed to promote loyalty to the king, caused more tension and fighting between powerful lords, who sought to increase their power and land.The fighting created lots of chaos and confusion in China.
5 China’s Feudal AgeThe chaos and confusion produced philosophers who wanted to bring peace and stability to China.ConfuciusHan FeiziLao Tzu – “The Old Master”
6 Ch. 4 Section 4 World History Philosophies of ChinaCh. 4 Section 4World History
7 Philosophies of ChinaA philosophy is a system of thinking that deals with worldly goals, rather than spiritual goals.There are three major philosophies that were founded in China that many people apply to their everyday life today.They are:Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism.
8 Confucianism Confucianism was founded by Confucius (Master Kong Fuzi) Confucian ideas teach that social order can be achieved in the following ways:Correct behaviorAccepting ones duties and responsibilitiesAccepting ones place in societyProviding good government
10 ConfucianismConfucianism stresses that accepting ones place in society means that you must always respect your superior:Wife to husbandFather to sonBrother to brotherRuler to subjectFriend to friend (treat each other equally)
11 ConfucianismConfucianism also stresses the importance of good government to keep society in order.According to Confucian ideas, good government was established by rulers who set good examples for their subjects to follow.Rulers should also be fair and just.In addition, Confucianism stresses that education is key to having good ruler. Education allows rulers to make competent decisions.
12 Think!It is easy to hate and it is difficult to love. This is how the whole scheme of things works. All good things are difficult to achieve; and bad things are very easy to get.
13 Think!Behave in such a way that your father and mother have no worry about you, except concerning your health.
14 Legalism Legalism was founded by Hanfeizi. According to Hanfeizi, human greed was the root of all evil and the cause of all problems in society.Therefore, governments should impose strict laws and harsh punishments to deter people from committing crimes.However, anyone doing the right thing should be rewarded.
16 Think!It is dangerous for a ruler to trust others. He who trusts others can be manipulated by others.
17 Think!When it comes to people who are close to him, he enjoys them, but is sure to hold them responsible for what they say, and prevent them from expressing unasked for opinions.
18 Daoism Daoism was founded by Laozi. According to Laozi, to achieve social order meant that humans must reject all conflict and strife and live in harmony with nature.In addition, government is believed to be unnatural. Therefore, Daoists believe that the government that governs the least is the best.
20 Think!He who knows that enough is enough will always have enough.
21 Think!Violence, even well intentioned, always rebounds upon oneself.
22 QuestionIf you were a ruler, which philosophy would you use to improve the welfare of your citizens? Why?
23 What would the Philosophers do? A student knows that they are failing a class. Students from each of these doctrines know they will be in trouble when their parents find out. How do they handle this situation?
24 What would the Philosophers do? A student really likes a new student in school, but all the other students are making fun of the new student's clothes. How should the first student act?