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Mandate of Heaven and the Dynastic Cycle
Answer the following questions… What qualities do we want in a leader? What qualities do we not want? Where does a leader get his or her power?
Mandate of Heaven The belief that heaven granted a ruler a mandate or ‘divine right to rule’ Linked Power and Responsibility In exchange for loyalty, the ruler must maintain order In exchange for loyalty, the ruler must maintain order Rulers need Mandate of Heaven to rule If lost, the people were allowed to rebel.
How might you gain the Mandate of Heaven? How might you lose it?
Accomplishments Est. a strong, central government Bring peace and order Give land to peasants Build roads, defensive walls and irrigation systems Support education and arts
Failures & Losing the Mandate Allow Corruption Lose military power Raise taxes Spend $ on luxuries Fail to reinforce walls, and irrigation Harsh ruler
Problems: Sign the Mandate is Lost Chaos Floods Invasions Peasant rebellions Poor harvests
Dynastic Cycle AAAA strong leader emerges and establishes a new dynasty CCCClaims mandate CCCCycle begins again
Guiding Principles What is the best way to ensure order, control behavior?
During times of Chaos, Chinese philosophers tried to find ways to guide human behavior and ensure order in society 3 Philosophies Developed in China Confucianism Confucianism Daoism (Taoism) Daoism (Taoism) Legalism Legalism
Confucianism FFFFounder: Confucius (Master Kong) DDDDates: 551 B.C WWWWritings: The Analects TTTTeachings: 5555 R R R R eeee llll aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn ssss hhhh iiii pppp ssss m m m m must govern society “Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in getting up every time we do”Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in getting up every time we do
5 Relationships Ruler and Ruled Father and Son Older Brother and Younger Brother Husband and Wife Friend and Friend Superior sets example and cares for inferior Superior sets example and cares for inferior Inferior shows respect to superior Inferior shows respect to superior
Confucius Filial piety: the duty and respect that children owed their parents Education and Morality Society more important than individual I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.
Daoism Founder: Lao Zi Dates: 551 B.C Writings: “The Way of Virtue” Teachings: Stressed the link between Nature and People People should do nothing contrary to nature, live according to the Dao “the Way”
Yin and Yang: Forces in Nature are to balance each other Yin: female, passive, earthy Yang: male, active, heavenly
Daoism Water as symbol of Tao Govt. should have fewer rules “Reveal thyself, embrace original nature, do not be selfish, curtail desire”
By examining the following Chinese paintings, what can you conclude about Daoist beliefs and the influence of Daoism in China?
Can you find the houses in this picture? What can you conclude about why they were painted in this way?
How might this painting reflect Taoist influence?
Which Daoist values are presented here?
Army of Emperor Shi Huangdi. Qin dynasty. c. 210 B.C. Read your assigned section of “Ghostly Warriors” 1.“A Young Warrior King” 2.“Creating a New Nation” 3.“Building a Worthy Army” 4.“A Ghostly Army” Share as a group and then Answer the questions.
Legalism Founder: Han Feizi Writings: Han Feizi 300-200 B.C. Teachings: People acted out of self interest People only respond to rewards and punishments, not good examples
Legalism Harsh Laws and Strict Rulers are necessary to get things done Laws more important than rulers Example: Shi Huangdi used Legalism to unite China and create the Great Wall
Legalist Rules In your group devise some Legalist Punishments and Rewards for the following issues: Choose 1 Shoplifting from the Cafeteria Shoplifting from the Cafeteria Tardiness (Lateness) to school Tardiness (Lateness) to school Cheating on a Test Cheating on a Test Dress Code infractions Dress Code infractions Cell Phones when driving. Cell Phones when driving.
Reflection What are some similarities and between the 3 philosophies of China? What is unique or distinct about each one? Which of the philosophies (Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism) do you most agree with? Least agree with? Explain.
Principle: is a standard of moral decision making What principles do you live by? List (5) Rank your principles 1-5 Rank your principles 1-5 (1 being the most important) (1 being the most important)
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