Presentation on theme: "Holy Warriors The Crusades 1096 - 1291 University of South Alabama Wayne E. Sirmon, M.A.Ed."— Presentation transcript:
Holy Warriors The Crusades 1096 - 1291 University of South Alabama Wayne E. Sirmon, M.A.Ed.
Before The Crusades 1004Caliph Hakem confiscated Church property 1009Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher 1017Christian and Jews have liberties restored
The Crusades 1095Council of Clermont (France) Pope Urban II Responds to a request from Byzantine emperor Alexius I for military assistance against the Seljuk Turks Declared Bellum Sacrum against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land Deus volt! “God wills it”
The Crusades 1095The First Crusade Regain control of Jerusalem and the Holy Lands from the Muslims 1099Captured Jerusalem Established the Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Crusades Walter the Penniless Peter the Hermit and the People’s Crusade
Capture of Jerusalem July 15, 1099 "The Crusaders spent at least that night and the next day killing Muslims, including all of those in the al-Aqsa Mosque, where Tancred's banner should have protected them. Not even women and children were spared. The city's Jews sought refuge in their synagogue, only to be burned alive within it by the Crusaders..... The Europeans also destroyed the monuments to Orthodox Christian saints and the tomb of Abraham." Taking Jerusalem: Climax of the First CrusadeTaking Jerusalem: Climax of the First Crusade By J. Arthur McFall
Battle of Hattin July 4, 1187 The beginning of the end Siege of Jerusalem Sept. 20 – Oct. 2, 1187 Saladin: collects ransoms (give 30-50 days to raise the cash) Provides for safe departure Europeans raise the 3 rd Crusade
The Crusades Total deaths during Crusades (1096-1270) are estimated at 1.5 million. 900,000 Moslems deaths 600,000 Christian deaths 10,000 Jewish deaths Many deaths are attributed to starvation and disease.
The Crusades The aftermath Merchants of Death Financiers of Death Strengthening of Church Organization for Taxation Slowed spread of Islam Established forces that led to: Protestant Reformation (Indulgences) Discovery of America (blocked trade routes)
Time Line Meanwhile…. Back in England Battle of Hastings Norman Invasion 14 Oct. 1066
Time Line Meanwhile…. Back in England Magna Carta 1215 (1216, 1217, 1225, 1297)
Time Line Meanwhile…. Back in England Magna Carta 1215 (1216, 1217, 1225, 1297) Signed by King John King Richard (The Lionhearted) Crusading 1191-94
Holy Warriors Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
Holy Warriors Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon 1118 - Founded in Jerusalem by 9 knights - King Baldwin II granted quarters on the Temple Mount 1127 - St. Bernard wrote rule of conduct and promoted Templars 1292 - Fall of Acre - Templar survivors escape to Cyprus
Holy Warriors Hospitallers The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
Holy Warriors Hospitallers The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta 1048 - (approx. date) establish the Hospital of St. John 1113 - Pope Paschal II grants protection and privileges 1143 - Both humanitarian and military role 1291 - Fall of Acre - relocation to Cyprus 1309 - Capture of Rhodes 1522 - Besieged by 200,000 men, survivors retreated to Sicily
Teutonic Knights Order of the Teutonic House of Mary in Jerusalem Holy Warriors
Teutonic Knights Order of the Teutonic House of Mary in Jerusalem 1190 - A hospital for Germans at Acre 1198 - Becomes a military order (Pope Innocent III) 1211 - Invited into Hungary 1221 - Full privileges granted by Pope Honorius III 1407 - Peak of power and land holding of Teutonic Knights. 1410 - Defeated at Tannenberg Holy Warriors
Hospitallers 1530 - Malta - assisted in attacks on land and sea 1798 - surrendered to French (Napoleon) largest group of Knights move to St. Petersburg (Tsar Paul I as Grand Master) 1834 - The Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta - Rome - abandons all military operations Present - 12,000 knights and dames & 80,000 permanent volunteers
Teutonic Knights Order of the Teutonic House of Mary in Jerusalem 1525 - loss of Prussia 1809 - dissolved by Napoleon I (Order continued to exist in Austria) 1929 - converted to a religious order Present - 1,000 members, including 100 priests, 200 nuns & 700 associates Holy Warriors
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon October 13, 1307 - King Phillip (France) arrests the Templars for heresy. March 19, 1314 - Grand Master Jacques DeMolay is burned at the Stake. Present - Books & movies create myths of treasures and secrets. The Templars are the godfather of conspiracy theories.
Were The Crusades for the Glory of God Or Man? Which do you Choose? Holy Warriors