Presentation on theme: "Types of Synovial Joints. Selected Synovial Joints: The Knee This is considered the most complex joint in the human body. It is actually considered three."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Synovial Joints
Selected Synovial Joints: The Knee This is considered the most complex joint in the human body. It is actually considered three joints working together.
The Knee These are: – An intermediate joint between the patella and distal end of the femur (femoropatellar joint). This is a plane joint.
The Knee These are: – An intermediate joint between the patella and distal end of the femur (femoropatellar joint). This is a plane joint. – A lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints between the femoral condyles and the menisci below.
The knee is unique in that it is not completely enclosed by a capsule.
The articular capsule is found only on the lateral and posterior surfaces.
The knee is unique in that it is not completely enclosed by a capsule. The articular capsule is found only on the lateral and posterior surfaces. The anterior surface is covered by three ligaments going from the patella to the tibia.
These ligaments are: The patella ligament
These ligaments are: The patella ligament & The medial and lateral patellar retinacula ligaments. They merge with the articular capsule on each side.
The intracapsular ligaments are the cruciate ligaments.
The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments cross each other forming an X in the notch between the femoral condyles.
The intracapsular ligaments are the cruciate ligaments. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments cross each other forming an X in the notch between the femoral condyles. They prevent anterior and posterior displacement.
Two additional ligaments, the Fibular and Tibial Collateral Ligaments prevent lateral or medial rotation when the knee is extended.
The synovial cavity of the knee has a complicated shape and over one dozen associated bursae. Some are easily injured such as the subcutaneous prepatellar bursa which lies just over the patella (house maid’s knee).(house maid’s knee).
House Maid’s Knee
Knee Injuries Common knee injuries involve the 3 C’s: – Collateral ligaments,
Knee Injuries Common knee injuries involve the 3 C’s: – Collateral ligaments, – Cruciate ligaments and
Knee Injuries Common knee injuries involve the 3 C’s: – Collateral ligaments, – Cruciate ligaments and – Cartilage (menisci).
Knee Injuries Lateral blows are the most dangerous, tearing the tibial collateral ligament and the medial meniscus and the anterior cruciate ligament.
Arthroscopic Knee Surgery Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure in which a joint (arthro-) is viewed (-scopy) using a small camera.
Arthroscopic Knee Surgery Arthroscopy gives doctors a clear view of the inside of the knee. This helps them diagnose and treat knee problems.
Arthroscopic Knee Surgery The orthopaedic surgeon will make a few small incisions in your knee. A sterile solution will be used to fill the knee joint and rinse away any cloudy fluid. This helps your orthopaedic surgeon see your knee clearly and in great detail.
Arthroscopic Knee Surgery
Knee Replacement People with degenerative arthritis, chronic injuries often lose that smooth articular cartilage. The result is bone on bone. The knee joints must be replaced.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint The large head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The cavity is extended by a fibrocartilage ring called the glenoid labrum. Connective tissue support comes from three groups of ligaments.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint A) Coracohumeral ligament provides the only strong support of the upper limb. It runs from the coracoid process to the greater tubercle of the humerus.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint C) The Rotator Cuff is formed from four tendons and muscles that encircle the joint. The muscles include the Subscapularis, Supraspinatus Infraspinatus and Teres minor.
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff Because of its mobility, the stability of the shoulder joint has been sacrificed. Anterior dislocations are the most common along with damage to the rotator cuff muscles due to severe circumduction.
Shoulder Dislocation Shoulder Dislocation and ReductionReduction
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus are the most commonly injured rotator cuff muscles. Due to the function of these muscles, sports which involve a lot of shoulder rotation – for example, pitching in baseball, swimming, – often put the rotator cuff muscles under a lot of stress.
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff Problems with the rotator cuff muscles can be classed into two categories – Tears of the tendons/muscles, and inflammation of the tendons (often called tendinopathy or tendonitis).
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves: – Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the shoulder where the rotator cuff moves (debridment).rotator cuff moves
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves: – Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the shoulder where the rotator cuff moves (debridement).debridement – Making more room for the rotator cuff tendon so it is not pinched or irritated.
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff tendon usually involves: – Removing loose fragments of tendon, bursa, and other debris from the space in the shoulder where the rotator cuff moves (debridement).debridement – Making more room for the rotator cuff tendon so it is not pinched or irritated. – Sewing the torn edges of the supraspinatus tendon together and to the top of the upper arm bone (humerus).
Shoulder Injuries Rotator Cuff
Elbow Joint This is a hinge joint where the radius and ulna articulate with the condyles of the humerus. The ulna’s trochlear notch forms a tight hinge with the trochlear of the humerus. This articulation allows for flexion and extension only.
Elbow Joint Side to side movement is prevented by the ulnar collateral ligament (triangular) and radial collateral ligament.
Tommy John Surgery This procedure, more formally known as UCL (Ulnar Collateral Ligament) reconstruction, is designed to repair a torn elbow ligament—an injury typically caused by strong, repetitive overhead throwing motions of the arm.
Tommy John Surgery It was first performed in 1974 on baseball pitcher Tommy John. pitcher The procedure typically lasts about an hour and a half, and patients usually leave the hospital the same day.
Hip (Coxal Joint) This is a ball and socket joint whose movement is limited by strong ligaments. It is formed from the spherical head of the femur and the deeply cupped acetabulum in the pelvis.
Hip (Coxal Joint) There is a thick articular capsule with several strong ligaments reinforcing the capsule. These include the: – Iliofemoral ligament – Pubofemoral ligament & – Ischiofemoral ligament
Hip Injuries Common injuries to the hip joint include fractures and dislocations. Hip fractures typically involve the neck of the femur and are the result of underlying disease such as osteoporosis.
Hip Replacement Hip replacement surgery, also called total hip arthroplasty, involves removing a diseased hip joint and replacing it with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis.
Hip Replacement Hip replacement is typically used for people with hip joint damage from arthritis or an injury. Followed by rehabilitation, hip replacement can relieve pain and restore range of motion and function of your hip joint Lets do a hip replacement!
Temporomandibular Joint Two distinct movements can occur with the jaw, a hinge like movement and the second is a lateral movement.
Injuries to the Jaw Injuries to the jaw include fractures and dislocations.
Injuries to the Jaw Injuries to the jaw include fractures and dislocations. A broken jaw is a break in the jaw bone. A dislocated jaw means the lower part of the jaw has moved out of its normal position at one or both joints.
Dislocation of the Jaw Symptoms of a dislocated jaw include pain in or around the jaw, the misalignment of teeth, and forward movement of the jaw beyond its regular position. Other symptoms include difficulty opening and closing the mouth.
Dislocation of the Jaw A dislocated jaw can be caused by forceful yawning or by some sort of trauma or impact with the face. Common causes of jaw dislocation include a punch to the face, sports injuries, and car accidents.
Dislocation of the Jaw
Fractures of the Jaw A broken jaw) is a common facial injury. Fractures (these are breaks in the bone) are generally the result of a direct force to the jaw.
Diseases of the joints Besides trauma, inflammation from over use or repetitive motions are the most common diseases seen in the joints.
Bursitis Inflammation of a bursal sac usually as the result of chronic irritation
Arthritis Arthritis is a common term for over 100 conditions which describe degenerative processes found in the joints. Major examples include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
Osgood–Schlatter disease Is also known as tibial tubercle apophyseal traction injury is a rupture of the growth plate at the tibial tuberosity.
Osgood–Schlatter disease The condition occurs in active boys and girls aged 9–16 coinciding with periods of growth spurts. It occurs more frequently in boys than in girls.
Osgood–Schlatter disease The condition is usually self-limiting and is caused by stress on the patellar tendon that attaches the quadriceps muscle at the the tibial tuberosity. Treatment is conservative with rest, RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation),RICE
Shin Splints Shin splints is a general medical term denoting medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), a slow healing and painful condition in the shins, usually caused by exercise such as running, jumping, swimming, cycling, dancing or other sports.
The onset of shin splints is most common after exercise, caused by high impact training, excessive training, poor technique
Knuckle Cracking When one cracks a knuckle, the stretching of the capsule lowers the pressure inside the joint and creates a vacuum which is filled by the gas previously dissolved in the synovial fluid. This creates a “bubble” which then bursts producing the characteristic “popping” or “cracking” sound.
Knuckle Cracking There is no evidence that cracking knuckles causes any damage such as arthritis in the joints.