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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky 8 Joints Part A

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Joints (Articulations)  Weakest parts of the skeleton  Articulation – site where two or more bones meet  Functions of joints  Give the skeleton mobility  Hold the skeleton together

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Joints: Structural  Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present  The three structural classifications are:  Fibrous  Cartilaginous  Synovial

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Sutures Figure 8.1a

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Structural Joints: Syndesmoses Figure 8.1b

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses Figure 8.2a, b

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses Figure 8.2c

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity  All are freely movable  Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: General Structure  Synovial joints all have the following  Articular cartilage  Joint (synovial) cavity  Articular capsule  Synovial fluid  Reinforcing ligaments

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: General Structure Figure 8.3a, b

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures  Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid  Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together  Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures Figure 8.4

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Stability  Stability is determined by:  Articular surfaces – shape determines what movements are possible  Ligaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion  Muscle tone:  Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factors  Tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints 1. Plane joints  Articular surfaces are essentially flat  Allow only slipping or gliding movements  Only examples of nonaxial joints Figure 8.7a

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gliding Movement Figure 8.5a

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints (continue) 2. Hinge joints  Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another  Motion is along a single plane  Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only  Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints Figure 8.7b

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. Pivot Joints  Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another  Only uniaxial movement allowed  Examples: joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4. Condyloid, or Ellipsoidal, Joints  Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another  Both articular surfaces are oval  Biaxial joints permit all angular motions  Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5. Saddle Joints  Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement  Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface  Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 6. Ball-and-Socket Joints  A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another  Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints  Examples: shoulder and hip joints

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Selected Synovial Joints: Knee  Largest and most complex joint of the body  Allows flexion, extension, and some rotation  Three joints in one surrounded by a single joint cavity  Femoropatellar  Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle  Lateral and medial patellar retinacula  Fibular and tibial collateral ligaments  Patellar ligament Synovial Joints: Knee Ligaments and Tendons – Anterior View Figure 8.8c

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Anterior cruciate ligament  Posterior cruciate ligament  Medial meniscus (semilunar cartilage)  Lateral meniscus Synovial Joints: Knee – Other Supporting Structures

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 8.8b Synovial Joints: Knee – Other Supporting Structures

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Adductor magnus tendon  Articular capsule  Oblique popliteal ligament  Arcuate popliteal ligament  Semimembranosus tendon Figure 8.8e Synovial Joints: Knee – Posterior Superficial View

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Selected Synovial Joints: Shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint  Ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement  Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability  Weak stability is maintained by:  Thin, loose joint capsule  Four ligaments – coracohumeral, and three glenohumeral  Tendon of the long head of biceps, which travels through the intertubercular groove and secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity  Rotator cuff (four tendons) that encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular capsule

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability Figure 8.10a

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability Figure 8.10b


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