Presentation on theme: "Articulations (joints)"— Presentation transcript:
1Articulations (joints) Hold bones togetherAllow body movementsStructurally are 3 types:Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovialFunctionally are 3 types:Synarthroses or immovableAmphiarthroses or slightly movableDiarthroses or freely movableImmovable..……Slightly movable….….Freely movableS……………………..…A…………………………D
21. Fibrous Joints - immovable No joint cavityTwo major typesSuture joints – very short connective tissue fibersSyndesmoses – short ligament of dense fibersGomphosis – short periodontal ligament
32. Cartilaginous joints – most are slightly movable No joint cavityTwo main typesSynchondrosesSymphyses
43. Synovial joints – freely movable Joint cavity containing fluidSimilarities between synovial joints:1. articular capsule = fibrouscapsule + synovial membrane.2. articular cartilage covering the bone surface.3. reinforcing ligaments.4. May have fibrocartilage pads within capsule.5. Synovial fluid
5Synovial Joints May also have: Menisci- discs or wedges of fibrocartilage padsBursae- flattened fibrous sacs lined wih synovial membrane
6Synovial Joints Are many different types: Plane (gliding) Hinge Pivot CondyloidSaddleBall and socket
7Types of synovial joints and their movementsa. Plane – allows slidingmovements in 1 or 2 planes.b. Hinge – allows movement in 1 planec. Pivot – allows rotational movement in 1 axis.
8d. Condyloid – allows biaxial movements in 2 planes.e. Saddle – allows movement in 2 planes (biaxial).f. Ball and socket – allows multiaxial movement.
13The hip joint – a ball and socket joint Frontal section through right hip joint
14Right hip joint showing ligaments. Front (anterior) view Back (posterior) view
15Largest and most complex joint in the body Knee jointLargest and most complex joint in the bodyIs unique as it is only partly enclosed by an articular capsuleMidsagittal viewAnterior view
16Label the following structures on this anterior view of the knee joint Posterior cruciateligamentFibular collateralligamentMedial condyleTibial collateralligamentLateral condyle of femurAnterior cruciateligamentLateral meniscusMedial meniscusTibiaPatellaligamentFibulaPatellaQuadriceps tendon