Presentation on theme: "Articulations (joints) –Hold bones together –Allow body movements Structurally are 3 types: –Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial Functionally are 3 types:"— Presentation transcript:
Articulations (joints) –Hold bones together –Allow body movements Structurally are 3 types: –Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial Functionally are 3 types: –Synarthroses or immovable –Amphiarthroses or slightly movable –Diarthroses or freely movable Immovable..……Slightly movable….….Freely movable S……………………..…A…………………………D
1. Fibrous Joints - immovable No joint cavity Two major types Suture joints – very short connective tissue fibers Syndesmoses – short ligament of dense fibers Gomphosis – short periodontal ligament
2. Cartilaginous joints – most are slightly movable No joint cavity Two main types Synchondroses Symphyses
3. Synovial joints – freely movable Joint cavity containing fluid Similarities between synovial joints: 1. articular capsule = fibrous capsule + synovial membrane. 2. articular cartilage covering the bone surface. 3. reinforcing ligaments. 4. May have fibrocartilage pads within capsule. 5. Synovial fluid
Synovial Joints May also have: –Menisci- discs or wedges of fibrocartilage pads –Bursae- flattened fibrous sacs lined wih synovial membrane
Synovial Joints Are many different types: Plane (gliding) Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and socket
Types of synovial joints and their movements a. Plane – allows sliding movements in 1 or 2 planes. b. Hinge – allows movement in 1 plane c. Pivot – allows rotational movement in 1 axis.
d. Condyloid – allows biaxial movements in 2 planes. e. Saddle – allows movement in 2 planes (biaxial). f. Ball and socket – allows multiaxial movement.
FIND TWO EXAMPLE OF EACH
The hip joint – a ball and socket joint Frontal section through right hip joint
Right hip joint showing ligaments. Front (anterior) viewBack (posterior) view
Knee joint Largest and most complex joint in the body Is unique as it is only partly enclosed by an articular capsule Midsagittal view Anterior view
Fibular collateral ligament Lateral condyle of femur Fibula Tibia Lateral meniscus Quadriceps tendon Patella ligament Medial meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibial collateral ligament Medial condyle Posterior cruciate ligament Label the following structures on this anterior view of the knee joint
The shoulder or glenohumeral joint – is the most freely moving joint in the body.