We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byVaughn Hutter
Modified about 1 year ago
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part B
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Synovial Joints Six types, based on shape of articular surfaces: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and socket
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Plane Joints Nonaxial joints Flat articular surfaces Short gliding movements
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7a a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial a Plane joint (intercarpal joint)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hinge Joints Uniaxial joints Motion along a single plane Flexion and extension only
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7b b Hinge joint (elbow joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pivot Joints Rounded end of one bone conforms to a “sleeve,” or ring of another bone Uniaxial movement only
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7c c Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) Joints Biaxial joints Both articular surfaces are oval Permit all angular movements
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7d d Condyloid joint (metacarpophalangeal joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Saddle Joints Biaxial Allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints Each articular surface has both concave and convex areas
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7e e Saddle joint (carpometacarpal joint of thumb) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ball-and-Socket Joints Multiaxial joints The most freely moving synovial joints
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7f f Ball-and-socket joint (shoulder joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Knee Joint Largest, most complex joint of body Three joints surrounded by a single joint cavity: Femoropatellar joint: Plane joint Allows gliding motion during knee flexion Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints between the femoral condyles and the C-shaped lateral and medial menisci (semilunar cartilages) of the tibia Allow flexion, extension, and some rotation when knee is partly flexed PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the knee joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8a (a) Sagittal section through the right knee joint Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8b (b) Superior view of the right tibia in the knee joint, showing the menisci and cruciate ligaments Medial meniscus Articular cartilage on medial tibial condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Articular cartilage on lateral tibial condyle Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Knee Joint At least 12 associated bursae Capsule is reinforced by muscle tendons: E.g., quadriceps and semimembranosus tendons Joint capsule is thin and absent anteriorly Anteriorly, the quadriceps tendon gives rise to: Lateral and medial patellar retinacula Patellar ligament
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8c Quadriceps femoris muscle Tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle Patella Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Tibial collateral ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Fibula (c) Anterior view of right knee Patellar ligament
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Knee Joint Capsular and extracapsular ligaments Help prevent hyperextension Intracapsular ligaments: Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments Prevent anterior-posterior displacement Reside outside the synovial cavity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8d Articular capsule Oblique popliteal ligament Lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle Fibular collateral ligament Arcuate popliteal ligament Tibia Femur Medial head of gastrocnemius muscle Tendon of semimembranosus muscle (d) Posterior view of the joint capsule, including ligaments Popliteus muscle (cut) Tendon of adductor magnus Bursa Tibial collateral ligament
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY Animation: Rotatable knee Figure 8.8e Fibular collateral ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Patellar ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Lateral condyle of femur Lateral meniscus Fibula Tibia (e) Anterior view of flexed knee, showing the cruciate ligaments (articular capsule removed, and quadriceps tendon cut and reflected distally)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.9 LateralMedial Patella (outline) Tibial collateral ligament (torn) Medial meniscus (torn) Anterior cruciate ligament (torn) Hockey puck
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint Ball-and-socket joint: head of humerus and glenoid fossa of the scapula Stability is sacrificed for greater freedom of movement
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.10a PLAY Animation: Rotatable shoulder Acromion of scapula Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Synovial cavity of the glenoid cavity containing synovial fluid Humerus (a) Frontal section through right shoulder joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoulder Joint Reinforcing ligaments: Coracohumeral ligament—helps support the weight of the upper limb Three glenohumeral ligaments—somewhat weak anterior reinforcements
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoulder joint Reinforcing muscle tendons: Tendon of the long head of biceps: Travels through the intertubercular groove Secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity Four rotator cuff tendons encircle the shoulder joint: Subscapularis Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor PLAY A&P Flix™: Rotator cuff muscles: An overview (a) PLAY A&P Flix™: Rotator cuff muscles: An overview (b)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.10c Acromion Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Coracohumeral ligament Greater tubercle of humerus Transverse humeral ligament Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Articular capsule reinforced by glenohumeral ligaments Subscapular bursa Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula Coracoid process (c) Anterior view of right shoulder joint capsule
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.10d Acromion Coracoid process Articular capsule Glenoid cavity Glenoid labrum Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Glenohumeral ligaments Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula PosteriorAnterior (d) Lateral view of socket of right shoulder joint, humerus removed
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Elbow Joint Radius and ulna articulate with the humerus Hinge joint formed mainly by trochlear notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus Flexion and extension only PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the elbow joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.11a Articular capsule Synovial membrane Synovial cavity Articular cartilage Coronoid process Tendon of brachialis muscle Ulna Humerus Fat pad Tendon of triceps muscle Bursa Trochlea Articular cartilage of the trochlear notch (a) Median sagittal section through right elbow (lateral view)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Elbow Joint Anular ligament—surrounds head of radius Two capsular ligaments restrict side-to-side movement: Ulnar collateral ligament Radial collateral ligament
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.11b Humerus Lateral epicondyle Articular capsule Radial collateral ligament Olecranon process Anular ligament Radius Ulna (b) Lateral view of right elbow joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY Animation: Rotatable elbow Figure 8.11d Articular capsule Anular ligament Coronoid process (d) Medial view of right elbow Radius Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar collateral ligament Ulna
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip (Coxal) Joint Ball-and-socket joint Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket Acetabular labrum—enhances depth of socket PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the hip joint: An overview
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.12a Articular cartilage Coxal (hip) bone Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Synovial cavity Articular capsule Acetabular labrum Femur (a) Frontal section through the right hip joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip Joint Reinforcing ligaments: Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Ligamentum teres
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY Animation: Rotatable hip Figure 8.12c Ischium Iliofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Greater trochanter of femur (c) Posterior view of right hip joint, capsule in place
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.12d Anterior inferior iliac spine Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligament Greater trochanter (d) Anterior view of right hip joint, capsule in place
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Mandibular condyle articulates with the temporal bone Two types of movement Hinge—depression and elevation of mandible Gliding—e.g. side-to-side (lateral excursion) grinding of teeth Most easily dislocated joint in the body
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13a Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Articular capsule Ramus of mandible Lateral ligament (a) Location of the joint in the skull
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13b Articular capsule Mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Ramus of mandible Synovial membranes (b) Enlargement of a sagittal section through the joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13c Lateral excursion: lateral (side-to-side) movements of the mandible Outline of the mandibular fossa Superior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Joint Injuries Sprains The ligaments are stretched or torn Partial tears slowly repair themselves Complete ruptures require prompt surgical repair Cartilage tears Due to compression and shear stress Fragments may cause joint to lock or bind Cartilage rarely repairs itself Repaired with arthroscopic surgery
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.14 Torn meniscus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Joint Injuries Dislocations (luxations) Occur when bones are forced out of alignment Accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization Caused by serious falls or playing sports Subluxation—partial dislocation of a joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions Bursitis An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction Treated with rest and ice and, if severe, anti- inflammatory drugs Tendonitis Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse Symptoms and treatment similar to bursitis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Arthritis >100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S. Symptoms; pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint Acute forms: caused by bacteria, treated with antibiotics Chronic forms: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Osteoarthritis (OA) Common, irreversible, degenerative (“wear- and-tear”) arthritis 85% of all Americans develop OA, more women than men Probably related to the normal aging process
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Osteoarthritis (OA) More cartilage is destroyed than replaced in badly aligned or overworked joints Exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement Treatment: moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause Usually arises between age 40 and 50, but may occur at any age; affects 3 times as many women as men Signs and symptoms include joint pain and swelling (usually bilateral), anemia, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular problems
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rheumatoid Arthritis RA begins with synovitis of the affected joint Inflammatory blood cells migrate to the joint, release inflammatory chemicals Inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a pannus Pannus erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms, articulating bone ends connect (ankylosis)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.15
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Treatment Conservative therapy: aspirin, long-term use of antibiotics, and physical therapy Progressive treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants New biological response modifier drugs neutralize inflammatory chemicals
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gouty Arthritis Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by inflammation More common in men Typically affects the joint at the base of the great toe In untreated gouty arthritis, the bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint Treatment: drugs, plenty of water, avoidance of alcohol
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lyme Disease Caused by bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks Symptoms: skin rash, flu-like symptoms, and foggy thinking May lead to joint pain and arthritis Treatment: antibiotics
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects of Joints By embryonic week 8, synovial joints resemble adult joints A joint’s size, shape, and flexibility are modified by use Advancing years take their toll on joints: Ligaments and tendons shorten and weaken Intervertebral discs become more likely to herniate Most people in their 70s have some degree of OA Exercise that coaxes joints through their full range of motion is key to postponing joint problems
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ligaments
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Developmental Aspects of Tissue Primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Joints (general) Joints of the upper limb Joints of the lower limb Chapter 9 of Tortora Human anatomy Lecturer: Dr. M. Samsam University of Central Florida,
Anatomy / Physiology Overview Skeletal System. Defined as the framework of bones, cartilage, ligaments and other connective tissues in the human body.
This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton)
Chapter 7: The Biomechanics of the Human Upper Extremity Basic Biomechanics, 4 th edition Susan J. Hall Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC.
© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 20: The Knee and Related Structures.
CLINICAL NOTES ON UPPER LIMB By: Dr. Mujahid Khan.
ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 9: Mechanisms and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal and Nerve Trauma.
Chapter 23: The Elbow © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton A&P Biology 141.
Copyright 2002 CareGroup Occupational Health Network Provocative Testing & Diagnostics of Upper & Lower Extremity Conditions Tom Winters, MD, FACOEM,
Chapter 19: The Ankle and Lower Leg © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
SKELETAL SYSTEM ORGANS THAT ARE CALLED BONES NUMBER OF ADULT BONES 206.
Arthritis What is arthritis? What is arthritis? Who is affected? Who is affected? What treatment options are available? What treatment options are available?
UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES Objective 2: Recognize common injuries to the upper extremity…
Chapter 19: The Ankle and Lower Leg.
Anat 1 Chapter 8 : Articulations. 1. Synarthrosis (no movement) 1. Bony Fusion (Synostosis) 2. Fibrous (Suture and Gomphosis) 3. Cartilaginous (Synchondrosis)
GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory.
Shoulder Syndromes VOMA September 2011 P. Gunnar Brolinson, DO, FAOASM, FACOFP, FAAFP Head Team Physician, Virginia Tech Chief of Sports Medicine Edward.
The Elbow Westfield High School Houston, Texas. The Elbow Compose of three bones –The humerus –The radius –The ulna.
Lecturer: Dr. M. Samsam University of Central Florida, Orlando, Pictures from Platzer atlas and textbook of human anatomy and K. Moore anatomy and Netter.
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Basic Biomechanics, (5th edition) by Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. Chapter 8 The Biomechanics of the Human.
OUCH THAT HURTS…. SPORTS INJURIES PSE 4U LECTURE PRESENTATION MR. D. GRAHAM Department of Health and Physical Education Westdale Secondary School.
Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Review motor unit Review bony tissue and cartilagebones How movement happens Tendons and ligaments (review.
Chapter 20 Review The Knee & Related Structures Choose a category. You will be given the answer. You must give the correct question. Click to begin.
Diseases of the temporomandibular joint. Surgical anatomy The temporomandibular joint consists of glenoid fossa on the skull base, the condyle, the articular.
SAR Ebrahimzadeh MD Rotator cuff tearing and treatment A rotator cuff tear is a common cause of pain and disability among adults Difficulties are: Dressing.
P2P2. Joint movement – what are joints? A joint is a place where two or more bones meet. Without joints, our bodies would not be able to move. Joints,
Hip and Knee Arthritis and Joint Replacement Barton Harris, MD.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.