2Apply First Aid Session 2 Bleeding. Wounds. Circulatory Disorders. Shock.Coronary Disease.Dressings & Bandages.
3Types of Bleeding External Internal Can be Arterial, Venous or Capillary
4Types of Bleeding Arterial: Venous: Capillary: Rapid and profuse. Bright red in colour and as it as it is under pressure, usually spurtsVenous:Flows from wound at a steady rateDark red in colourCapillary:Gentle ooze from wound
5Types of BleedingDiagram of the various blood vessels
6Control of Bleeding After exposing apply direct pressure to the wound. Elevate the injured area of the level of the heart
7Control of BleedingApply a pressure bandage using either a folded triangular bandage, or -A roller bandage.Rest of the casualty
8Control of Bleeding Avoid Coughing, Sneezing or Talking over wounds. Do not handle a wound unless the emergency control of bleeding is necessary.Use Sterile or Clean dressings.
10Amputations Management First Step - the CasualtyControl Bleeding.Reassure the Casualty.Second Step - the Severed Part.Retrieve the severed part and place in a plastic bag.Place the bag into iced water.Then Seek Medical Treatment
12Wounds The body’s natural responses when wounded are: Contraction RetractionConstriction
13WoundsLayers of skin, fat and muscle form a protective soft tissue layer for the body
14Wounds Bruise (Contusion) A bruise, or contusion, is an injury to soft tissue layers and vessels beneath the skin, causing internal bleeding.When blood and other fluids seep into the surrounding tissues the area discolours and swells.
15An abrasion is the most common type of open wound. WoundsAbrasionAn abrasion is the most common type of open wound.It is characterised by in which has been rubbed or scraped away. Commonly called a carpet burn or gravel rash.
16An incision is a cut usually from a sharp object with smooth edges. WoundsIncisionAn incision is a cut usually from a sharp object with smooth edges.Incisions are commonly caused by sharp objects such as knives, scissors or broken glass.
17WoundsLacerationA laceration is like an incision but has jagged edges.Lacerations are commonly caused by sharp edged objects that can also result when a blunt force splits the skin.It often occurs in areas where bone lies directly under the skin.
18WoundsAvulsionAn avulsion is an injury in which a portion of the skin, and sometimes other soft tissue, are partially or completely torn away.
19WoundsPuncture WoundA puncture wound results when the skin is pierced with a pointed object such as a nail, piece of glass, splinter, knife, bullet or an animal bite.
20Wounds Imbedded Object An object that remains in a puncture wound is called an embedded object.
21Bleeding Scalp Ear Nose Gums / Teeth Eye Palm of Hand Abdominal Wounds Bleeding may occur from numerous places for a variety of reasons.Some examples are listed here:ScalpEarNoseGums / TeethEyePalm of HandAbdominal WoundsPenetrating ChestBlast WoundsAnimal BitesVaginalVaricose VeinsCrush InjuriesBruises
23Teeth Check For Fractures Replace the Knocked Out Teeth Ensure Airway is ClearControl BleedingSoak in MilkMouthguards Prevent Dental Injuries.
24Head Wounds Bleeding from the scalp. Do Not apply pressure if Brain is visible in the wound.Apply a dressing.Bandage the head.
25Abdominal Wounds Person is conscious: For imbedded object or suspected internal injury:DO NOT remove.NO pressure bandageLightly cover woundPlace person on back with head and neck raisedKnees elevated with blanket etcObserve person for signs of shockSeek medical aid.All unconscious persons to be placed carefully in the lateral position.
27ShockWhen vital organs receive insufficient oxygen rich blood, they fail to function properly.This triggers a series of responses that lead to a condition known as shock.These responses are the body’s attempt to maintain adequate blood flow to the vital organs and thus prevent their failure.
28ShockWhen the body is healthy, three conditions are needed to maintain adequate blood flow.The heart must be working well.An adequate amount of oxygen rich blood must be circulating in the body.The blood vessels must be intact and able to adjust blood flow.
29The Effects of Shock on the Body. When a severe injury or sudden illness affects the flow of blood, the heart beats faster and stronger to adjust to the increased demand for more oxygen.With the heart beating faster breathing must also speed up to meet the increased demands of the body for oxygen.
31Care for ShockAlways follow the emergency action principles and give the following specific care:Control any external bleeding as soon as possible.Reassure the person and help them to rest comfortably.Help the person to maintain normal body temperature.Continue checking the ABC and level of response.Elevate the legs slightly to assist the return of blood flow to vital organs. Some conditions or injuries make this inadvisable. If you are unsure of the persons condition do not raise the legs.Do not give the person anything to eat or drink.Call an ambulance immediately.
32Fainting Symptoms and signs Fainting may occur with or without warning.The following symptoms and signs may occur:Feeling light-headed or dizzySigns of shock such as pale, cool, moist skinNumbness or tingling in the fingers and toesNausea
33Fainting Care for Fainting If the person is responding, leave them lying flat.Reassure the person.If unconscious, place the person on their side and check the A.B.C.Elevate the person’s legs if possible.Loosen any tight clothing.Do not give the person anything to eat or drink.
34Congestive Heart Failure (Chronic Heart Failure) Symptoms and signsSevere breathlessnessCoughing or wheezingNoisy gurgling breathSwelling of feet and ankles or abdomenTiredness and severe fatigue.
35Coronary Disease Risk Factors: Cigarette smoking. High blood pressure. Diet high in saturated fat & cholesterol.Obesity.A lack of regular exercise.Heredity, age and sex.
36AnginaCare for AnginaHelp the person into a comfortable resting position.Reassure the person.Assist the persons with prescribed medication.If symptoms continue call an ambulance.
37Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms: Chest pain. Shortness of breath. Pale cold and clammyNausea.Fatigue.Feeling of dread.Sudden collapse.000
38Heart Attack Care for Heart Attack Stop any activity. Help the person to a comfortable resting position.Call an ambulance.Assist with prescribed medication.Monitor vital signs.Be calm and reassuring.Be prepared to give CPR.
39StrokeA Stroke is caused by the disruption of blood flow to part of the brain serious enough to damage brain tissue.Most commonly, Stroke is caused by a blood clot in the arteries that supply blood to the brain.Another common cause is from a ruptured artery.A head injury or high blood pressure etc may also cause a stroke
40Stroke Signs and Symptoms: One sided paralysis. Altered the level of consciousness.Slurred or garbled speech.Flushed face.Seizures.Pounding pulse.Different sized pupils.
41Dressings & BandagesAll open wounds need some type of covering to help control bleeding and prevent infection.These coverings are commonly referred to as dressings and bandages, of which there are many different types.The type you use and your method of applying it depend upon the type of injury and materials at hand.
42Dressings & BandagesNon-medicated dressings used to control bleeding or cover a large wound.
43Dressings & BandagesB. P. C. dressing, used for very large or deep wounds
44Non-adherent dressing. These are used for burns and abrasions. Dressings & BandagesNon-adherent dressing.These are used for burns and abrasions.
45Dressings & BandagesRoller Bandages are made of various materials includingCotton, Gauze, Elastic and Synthetic fibres
46Dressings & BandagesSteps for applying a Roller Bandage.
47Dressings & BandagesSteps for applying a Roller Bandage.
48Dressings & BandagesSteps for applying a Figure of Eight Roller Bandage.
49Dressings & BandagesSteps for applying a Figure of Eight Roller Bandage.
50Applying a roller bandage around an elbow of knee. Dressings & BandagesApplying a roller bandage around an elbow of knee.
51Applying a roller bandage around an elbow of knee. Dressings & BandagesApplying a roller bandage around an elbow of knee.
52Applying a roller bandage to the hand. Dressings & BandagesApplying a roller bandage to the hand.
53Applying a roller bandage to the hand. Dressings & BandagesApplying a roller bandage to the hand.
54Applying a bulky dressing to support the object. Dressings & BandagesApplying a bulky dressing to support the object.
55Applying bandages over the dressing to control bleeding. Dressings & BandagesApplying bandages over the dressing to control bleeding.