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Volunteer Marine Rescue TDM MF1007B. Apply First Aid  Bleeding.  Wounds.  Circulatory Disorders.  Shock.  Coronary Disease.  Dressings & Bandages.

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Presentation on theme: "Volunteer Marine Rescue TDM MF1007B. Apply First Aid  Bleeding.  Wounds.  Circulatory Disorders.  Shock.  Coronary Disease.  Dressings & Bandages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volunteer Marine Rescue TDM MF1007B

2 Apply First Aid  Bleeding.  Wounds.  Circulatory Disorders.  Shock.  Coronary Disease.  Dressings & Bandages. Session 2

3 Types of Bleeding Internal External Can be Arterial, Venous or Capillary

4 Arterial: Rapid and profuse. Bright red in colour and as it as it is under pressure, usually spurts Venous: Flows from wound at a steady rate Dark red in colour Capillary: Gentle ooze from wound Types of Bleeding

5 Diagram of the various blood vessels

6 Control of Bleeding After exposing apply direct pressure to the wound. Elevate the injured area of the level of the heart

7 Control of Bleeding Apply a pressure bandage using either a folded triangular bandage, or - A roller bandage. Rest of the casualty

8 Control of Bleeding Avoid Coughing, Sneezing or Talking over wounds. Do not handle a wound unless the emergency control of bleeding is necessary. Use Sterile or Clean dressings.

9 Amputations Management

10 First Step - the Casualty Control Bleeding. Reassure the Casualty. Second Step - the Severed Part. Retrieve the severed part and place in a plastic bag. Place the bag into iced water. Then Seek Medical Treatment

11 Bleeding Shed Blood Clots Cut Ends of Vessels Contract Blood Pressure Falls

12 The body’s natural responses when wounded are: Contraction Retraction Constriction Wounds

13 Layers of skin, fat and muscle form a protective soft tissue layer for the body

14 Wounds Bruise (Contusion) A bruise, or contusion, is an injury to soft tissue layers and vessels beneath the skin, causing internal bleeding. When blood and other fluids seep into the surrounding tissues the area discolours and swells.

15 Wounds Abrasion An abrasion is the most common type of open wound. It is characterised by in which has been rubbed or scraped away. Commonly called a carpet burn or gravel rash.

16 Wounds Incision An incision is a cut usually from a sharp object with smooth edges. Incisions are commonly caused by sharp objects such as knives, scissors or broken glass.

17 Wounds Laceration A laceration is like an incision but has jagged edges. Lacerations are commonly caused by sharp edged objects that can also result when a blunt force splits the skin. It often occurs in areas where bone lies directly under the skin.

18 Wounds Avulsion An avulsion is an injury in which a portion of the skin, and sometimes other soft tissue, are partially or completely torn away.

19 Wounds Puncture Wound A puncture wound results when the skin is pierced with a pointed object such as a nail, piece of glass, splinter, knife, bullet or an animal bite.

20 Wounds Imbedded Object An object that remains in a puncture wound is called an embedded object.

21 Bleeding Scalp Ear Nose Gums / Teeth Eye Palm of Hand Abdominal Wounds Penetrating Chest Blast Wounds Animal Bites Vaginal Varicose Veins Crush Injuries Bruises Bleeding may occur from numerous places for a variety of reasons. Some examples are listed here:

22 Nose Injuries Fractures Soft Tissue Damage Swelling Bleeding Possible Airway Obstruction

23 Teeth Check For Fractures Replace the Knocked Out Teeth Ensure Airway is Clear Control Bleeding Soak in Milk Mouthguards Prevent Dental Injuries.

24 Head Wounds Bleeding from the scalp. Do Not apply pressure if Brain is visible in the wound. Bandage the head. Apply a dressing.

25 Abdominal Wounds Person is conscious: For imbedded object or suspected internal injury: DO NOT remove. NO pressure bandage Lightly cover wound Place person on back with head and neck raised Knees elevated with blanket etc Observe person for signs of shock Seek medical aid. All unconscious persons to be placed carefully in the lateral position.

26 Circulatory Disorders Shock. Fainting. Heart Disease. Angina Pectoris. Coronary Occlusion. Chronic Heart Failure. Transient Ischaemic Attack / Stroke.

27 When vital organs receive insufficient oxygen rich blood, they fail to function properly. This triggers a series of responses that lead to a condition known as shock. These responses are the body’s attempt to maintain adequate blood flow to the vital organs and thus prevent their failure. Shock

28 When the body is healthy, three conditions are needed to maintain adequate blood flow. The heart must be working well. An adequate amount of oxygen rich blood must be circulating in the body. The blood vessels must be intact and able to adjust blood flow.

29 Shock The Effects of Shock on the Body. When a severe injury or sudden illness affects the flow of blood, the heart beats faster and stronger to adjust to the increased demand for more oxygen. With the heart beating faster breathing must also speed up to meet the increased demands of the body for oxygen.

30 Signs of Shock

31 Care for Shock Always follow the emergency action principles and give the following specific care: Control any external bleeding as soon as possible. Reassure the person and help them to rest comfortably. Help the person to maintain normal body temperature. Continue checking the ABC and level of response. Elevate the legs slightly to assist the return of blood flow to vital organs. Some conditions or injuries make this inadvisable. If you are unsure of the persons condition do not raise the legs. Do not give the person anything to eat or drink. Call an ambulance immediately.

32 Fainting Symptoms and signs Fainting may occur with or without warning. The following symptoms and signs may occur: Feeling light-headed or dizzy Signs of shock such as pale, cool, moist skin Numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes Nausea

33 Fainting Care for Fainting If the person is responding, leave them lying flat. Reassure the person. If unconscious, place the person on their side and check the A.B.C. Elevate the person’s legs if possible. Loosen any tight clothing. Do not give the person anything to eat or drink.

34 Congestive Heart Failure (Chronic Heart Failure) Severe breathlessness Coughing or wheezing Noisy gurgling breath Swelling of feet and ankles or abdomen Tiredness and severe fatigue. Symptoms and signs

35 Coronary Disease Risk Factors: Cigarette smoking. High blood pressure. Diet high in saturated fat & cholesterol. Obesity. A lack of regular exercise. Heredity, age and sex.

36 Angina Help the person into a comfortable resting position. Reassure the person. Assist the persons with prescribed medication. If symptoms continue call an ambulance. Care for Angina

37 Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms: Chest pain. Shortness of breath. Pale cold and clammy Nausea. Fatigue. Feeling of dread. Sudden collapse. 000

38 Heart Attack Care for Heart Attack Stop any activity. Help the person to a comfortable resting position. Call an ambulance. Assist with prescribed medication. Monitor vital signs. Be calm and reassuring. Be prepared to give CPR.

39 Stroke A Stroke is caused by the disruption of blood flow to part of the brain serious enough to damage brain tissue. Most commonly, Stroke is caused by a blood clot in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Another common cause is from a ruptured artery. A head injury or high blood pressure etc may also cause a stroke

40 Stroke Signs and Symptoms: One sided paralysis. Altered the level of consciousness. Slurred or garbled speech. Flushed face. Seizures. Pounding pulse. Different sized pupils.

41 Dressings & Bandages All open wounds need some type of covering to help control bleeding and prevent infection. These coverings are commonly referred to as dressings and bandages, of which there are many different types. The type you use and your method of applying it depend upon the type of injury and materials at hand.

42 Dressings & Bandages Non-medicated dressings used to control bleeding or cover a large wound.

43 Dressings & Bandages B. P. C. dressing, used for very large or deep wounds

44 Dressings & Bandages Non-adherent dressing. These are used for burns and abrasions.

45 Dressings & Bandages Roller Bandages are made of various materials including Cotton, Gauze, Elastic and Synthetic fibres

46 Dressings & Bandages Steps for applying a Roller Bandage.

47 Dressings & Bandages Steps for applying a Roller Bandage.

48 Dressings & Bandages Steps for applying a Figure of Eight Roller Bandage.

49 Dressings & Bandages Steps for applying a Figure of Eight Roller Bandage.

50 Dressings & Bandages Applying a roller bandage around an elbow of knee.

51 Dressings & Bandages Applying a roller bandage around an elbow of knee.

52 Dressings & Bandages Applying a roller bandage to the hand.

53 Dressings & Bandages Applying a roller bandage to the hand.

54 Dressings & Bandages Applying a bulky dressing to support the object.

55 Dressings & Bandages Applying bandages over the dressing to control bleeding.

56 Time to practice our skills- Bandages

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