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Chapter 15: Sudden Illness. 292 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: Sudden Illness. 292 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15: Sudden Illness

2 292 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Responding to a Medical Emergency  General signs of sudden illness:  Change in a person’s level of consciousness  Feeling lightheaded, dizzy or weak  Nausea or vomiting  Changes in breathing, circulation, skin temperature, color or moisture  General care for sudden illnesses include—  Do no further harm.  Monitor breathing and consciousness.  Help the victim rest in the most comfortable position.  Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.  Reassure the victim.  Give any specific care needed.

3 293 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Sudden Illness  Sudden illness can be—  Acute.  Chronic.  Common sudden illnesses include—  Fainting.  Diabetic emergencies.  Seizures.  Stroke.  Poisoning.  Heart attack.  Shock.

4 294 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Fainting  Partial or complete loss of consciousness caused by a temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain.  The victim will commonly display shock-like signals, such as—  Cool, pale, moist skin.  Nausea.  Numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes.  Additional signals that may precede fainting include—  Sweating.  Vomiting.  Distortion or dimming of vision.  Head or abdominal pain.

5 295 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Care for Fainting  General care for sudden illness:  Position the victim on the back on a flat surface. Elevate the legs about 12 inches.  Loosen any restrictive clothing.  Check for any other life-threatening and non-life-threatening conditions.  Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink.  Do not splash the victim with water or slap his or her face.  As long as the fainting victim recovers quickly and has not lasting signals, you may or may not need to call or the local emergency number.

6 296 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Diabetes Mellitus  A condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectively is called diabetes mellitus.  Type I  Type II  Hyperglycemia  Hypoglycemia

7 297 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Signs of Diabetic Emergency  Changes in consciousness, including dizziness, drowsiness and confusion.  Irregular breathing.  Abnormal pulse (rapid or weak).  Feeling or looking ill.

8 298 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Care for a Diabetic Emergency  Check and care for any life-threatening conditions.  If conscious:  Check for non-life-threatening conditions.  Look for a medical alert tag or ask the victim if he or she has diabetes.  give sugar in the form of fruit juice, candy or a non-diet soft drink.  If unconscious:  Call or the local emergency number immediately.  Do not give the victim anything by mouth.  Monitor signs of circulation and breathing.  Keep him or her from getting overheated or chilled.

9 299 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Seizures  Caused by an acute or chronic condition.  Before a seizure occurs, the victim may experience an aura  Seizures can range from mild blackouts to sudden, uncontrolled muscular contractions that can last several minutes.  Febrile seizures  Common in children under 5 and can be triggered by ear, throat, or digestive system infections or a fever of over 102°F (38.9°).  Signs:  A sudden rise in body temperature  A change in the level of consciousness  Rhythmic jerking of the head and limbs  Urinating or defecating  Confusion  Drowsiness  Crying out  Becoming rigid  Holding the breath  Upward rolling of the eyes

10 300 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Care for a Seizure  Do not try to hold or restrain the victim.  Protect the victim from injury and maintain an open airway.  Remove nearby objects that could cause injury.  After the seizure, position him or her on one side so that fluid can drain from the mouth.  Check for life-threatening conditions.  Stay with the victim until he or she is fully conscious and aware of his or her surroundings.  Call or the local emergency number, if necessary.

11 301 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Stroke  A disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain, resulting in permanent damage to brain tissue.  Caused by a blood clot, aneurysm or atherosclerosis.  A transient ischemic attack (TIA) -

12 302 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Reducing Risk of Stroke and Other Cardiovascular Diseases  Control blood pressure  Not smoking  Eat a healthy diet  Exercise regularly  Control diabetes

13 303 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Signs of Stroke  Appearing or feeling ill, or displaying abnormal behavior  Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, often on only one side of the body  Difficulty speaking or being understood  Blurred or dimmed vision  Pupils of unequal size  Sudden severe headache  Dizziness  Confusion  Change in mood  Ringing in the ears  Loss of consciousness  Loss of bowel or bladder control

14 304 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2005 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved. Care for a Stroke  Care for life-threatening conditions.  Call or the local emergency number immediately.  Position him or her on one side (affected or paralyzed side down) to allow fluids to drain.  Stay with the victim and check his or her breathing and signs of circulation.  If the victim is conscious—  Check for non-life-threatening conditions.  Offer comfort and reassurance.  Have the victim rest in a comfortable position.


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