Presentation on theme: "Clauses in English Language (Wren & Martin)"— Presentation transcript:
1Clauses in English Language (Wren & Martin) Ashutosh Agarwal
2Agenda What are clauses ? Types of Sentences Types of Clauses & their propertiesAdverb ClausesAdjective ClausesNoun Clauses
3Clause ?Group of words that forms part of a sentence, has a Subject & a predicate of its own
4Types of sentences Simple Compound Complex We need this study to understand the occurrence of clauses in various forms
5Simple Sentences Simple 1 subject, 1 predicate, only 1 Finite Verb His courage won him honour.The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or number.
6Compound Sentences Types Made up of 2 (or more) independent clauses (Main) (all of same rank)Joined by co-ordinating conjunction andRam went to Nagpur and Shyam went to PuneNight came on and rain fell heavily and we all got very wet.TypesCopulativeAdversativeAlternativeIllative
7Types of Compound Sentences Copulative: main clauses are simply coupled togetherGod made the country and man made the town.Babar was not only a great soldier, he was also a wise ruler.He cannot speak, nor can he write.He plays the piano, he sings also.The innocent were punished as well as the guilty.
8Types of Compound Sentences Adversative: two main clauses are opposed in meaningHe is slow, but he is sure.I did my best, nevertheless I failed.He is rich, yet he is not happy.He is vain, still his friends adore him.
9Types of Compound Sentences Alternative or Disjunctive: main clauses are disjoined in meaningShe must weep, or she must die.Either he is mad, or he feigns madness.Neither a borrower nor a lender be.Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
10Types of Compound Sentences Illative: the second clause draws an inference from the firstHe is diligent, therefore he will succeed.He is unwell, so he cannot attend office.The angels are equal, consequently the sides are equal.
11Compound sentences: other stuff Contracted subjectHe chid their warnings, but relieved their pain.= He chid their warnings, but he relieved their pain.Contracted verbSome praise the work and some the architect.= Some praise the work and some praise the architectNo connecting word may be usedTemperance promotes health, intemperance destroys it.
12Complex sentences They rested when the night came on. When night came on cannot be a sentence by itselfHence lower rankCalled subordinate clauseComplex sentence containsOne main clauseOne or more subordinate clausesExamplesAnil called at 5:30 and I told him that you had gone outCompound partMain ClauseMain ClauseSubordinate Clause
13Three kinds of subordinate clauses Adverb clauseAdjective clauseNoun clause
14Adjective Clauses Second sentence contains a subject & a predicate Play the role of an adjectiveThe umbrella with a broken handle is mineThe umbrella which has a broken handle is mine[Which umbrella ?]Second sentence contains a subject & a predicatePhrase !!!!Adverb Clause !!!
15Special properties of Adjective Clause Introduced by a relative pronoun or relative adverbUneasy lies the head that wears the crownHe is the man whom we all respectThe time when the boat leaves is not yet fixedThe reason why I did it is obviousRelative pronoun (or adverb) may be missingEat all ^ you can (that is understood)I saw a man ^ I know (whom is understood)Where’s the book ^ he left me ?
16Adverb Clause Clause the playing the role of a adverb E.g., They rested when evening came.Not a phrase sinceSubject=evening &predicate = (came when)Though like a sentence but inside a sentenceHe fled where his pursuers could not follow.
17Adverb Clauses Kinds of Adverb Clauses Time Place Purpose Clause ConditionResultComparisonSupposition or Concession
18Adverb Clauses: TimeIntroduced by subordinating conjunctions whenever, while, after, before, since, asWhen you have finished your work you may go home.I will do it when I think fit.Don’t talk while she is singing.After the law had been passed this form of crime ceased.Do it before you forget.Before you go bring me some water.There was silence as the leader spoke.Just as he entered the room the clock struck.
19Adverb Clause: Place Where, wherever I have put it where I can find it again.They can stay where they are.Where you live I will live.He led the caravan wherever he wanted to go.
20Adverb Clause: Purpose So that, in order that, lestI will give you a map so that you find the way.We eat so that we may live.The UNO was formed in order that countries might discuss world problems.He was extra polite to his seniors lest something adverse should be written into his records.Sleep not lest your Lord come in the night.
21Adverb Clause: Cause/Reason Because, as, since, thatBecause I believe you, I shall help you.I did it because I wanted to.Since you are so clever you will be able to explain this.Since you swear to me, I will employ you.I am glad that you like it.He was very pleased that you have passed.As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
22Adverb Clause: Condition (1) If, whether, unlessIf I like it, I shall buy it.Come, if you wish to.If it rains we shall stay at home.You must go whether you hear from him or not.Whether Ram gives him money or not, he will speak the truth.Unless you work hard you will fail.
23Adverb Clauses: Condition(2) Sometimes subjordinating conjuct. is ommittedWhat would you answer did I ask you such a question?Had I not seen this with my own eyes I would not have believed it.Sometimes introduced by a relative pronoun (adjec, adverb) without any antecedentWhatever happens keep calm.Don’t annoy him whatever you do.Whatever may be the result, I shall refuse.
24Adverb Clause: Result/Consequence That (So or such may precede principal clause)He is such a good man that all respect him.So great a fire raged that London was burnt down.Romans built in such a way that their walls are intact.He spoke in such a low voice that few could hear him.Sometimes subordinating conjunction is droppedHe was so weak ^ he could not speak.I am so deaf ^ I cannot hear thunder.It was so late ^ I waited no longer.
25Adverb Clause: Comparison (degree/manner) 1. Adv. Clause of comparison of degreeThan, as (relative adverb)He is older than he looks.No one can run faster than Rama.It is later than I thought.He is as stupid as he is lazy.He is not so clever as you think.Verb of degree of comparison is often understood and not expressedNobody knows it better than I. [do]Few are better leader than he. [is]You like curry better than I. [like it].
26Adverb Clause: Comparison (degree/manner) Adv. Clause of comparison of mannerAs (relative adverb)You many do as you please.It all ended as I expected.As you have made your bed so you must lie on it.As he has lived so will he die.As the twig is bent the branch will grow.
27Adverb Clause : Supposition/Concession Though, although, even ifThough I am poor I am honest.He set sail though the storm threatened.I shall be able to get in although I have no ticket.Although I forbade this you have done it.Even if it rains I shall come.I would not do it even if you paid me.Suppostion: an idea or a statement believed or assumed to be trueConcession: failure to challenge, thus assumed to be true
28Noun Clauses Play the role of noun I expect to get a prize. I expect that I shall get a prize.[Expect what ?]1st is phrase, 2nd clauseThat you have come pleases me
29Noun clause can be a __ Subject of a verb That you should say so surprises me.What he said was trueThe object of a transitive verb- He says that he won’t go.- Tell me where you live.The object of a preposition- Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
30Noun clause can be a __ In apposition to a noun or pronoun Your statement that you found money in the street will not be believed.You must never forget this, that honesty is the best policy.Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to define or modify the other.E.g., my friend Ram, here Ram is an oppostion to my friend
31Noun clause can be a __5. The complement of a verb of incomplete predicationMy belief is that he will not come.Her constant prayer was that the child might live.Life is what we make it.This is where I live.My wish is that I may please you.Incomplete predication: Consider the sentence He looks upset.You have to supply a word like upset (or tired, sad, happy, cheerful etc.) to make the sense complete. Looks is therefore a verb of incomplete predication.
33Something more …Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to define or modify the other.E.g., my friend Ram, here Ram is an oppostion to my friend