Bina Nusantara University 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES –Students are able to mention the types of phrases, clauses and sentences –Students are able to categorize phrases, clauses and sentences according to their types –Students are able to give examples for each type of phrases, clauses and sentences
Bina Nusantara University 3 OUTLINE Phrase Clause Sentence
Bina Nusantara University 4 Definition of Syntax Syntax is part of grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structure Structure is word order; so the meaning of the sentence depends on the order in which the words occur in the sentence. - ‘I see what I eat’ is different from ‘ I eat what I see’ Sequences of words that conform to the rules of syntax are well formed or grammatical, and those that violate the syntactic rules are ill formed or ungrammatical. Grammaticality of a sentence depends on the syntactic rules but not whether the sentence is meaningful or not.
Bina Nusantara University 5 Phrase A phrase is a group of words which functions as a unit and does not contain a finite verb Finite verb is a verb that can take as its subject a pronoun - I see, he sees, they saw Non finite verb is a verb that can not a subject directly - I seeing, he to see, we seen Non finite verb forms occur in the present participle (v+ing), past participle (V+ed), infinitive (to+V). Only non finite verb forms can occur in phrases - seen from this angle, the mountains look blue
Bina Nusantara University 6 Types of Phrases Noun Phrase: a group of words with a noun as its headword. - The young man threw the old dog a bone Adjective Phrase : a group of words which modifies a noun. - Attributive AP : preceding for following a noun The child, laughing happily, ran out the house. - Predicative AP: following a verb The letter was unbelievably rude Verb Phrase: a group of words with a verb as headword. - He has been singing
Bina Nusantara University 7 Adverb Phrase: a group of words which functions like an adverb, it tells us when, where, why, how an event occurred - He almost always arrives on time - He ran very quickly Preposition Phrase : a group of words with a preposition - He arrived by plane - We are on a very good terms Types of phrase
Bina Nusantara University 8 A Clause is a group of words which contains a finite verb but which cannot occur in isolation, that is a clause constitute only part of a sentence. In a complex sentence, there are at least two clauses : the main clause and one subordinate or dependent clause. - He believed that the earth was round. He believed = main clause that the earth was round = subordinate clause Clause
Bina Nusantara University 9 Types of Clause 1. Noun Clause: a group of words containing a finite verb and functioning like a noun Noun Clause can be substituted by Noun, Pronoun, Noun Phrase Noun Clause functions as Subject, Object or Complement - He said that he was tired - What you said was not true 2.Adjective Clause or ‘relative clause’ is a group of words which modify a noun. - The dog which won the competition is a German shepherd
Bina Nusantara University 10 Types of Clause 3. Adverbial Clause: a clause that functions like an adverb in giving information about when, where, why, how or if an action occurred. When he arrived we were all sleeping Put it where we can all see it Adverbial Clauses are the most frequently used clauses and they are mobile ( can occupy different position)
Bina Nusantara University 11 Sentences 4 sub types of sentences 1. Declarative sentences make statement of assertion - I shall arrive at three 2. Imperative sentences give orders, make request, have no subject - Come here 3. Interrogative sentences ask questions: - Did you see your brother yesterday? 4. Exclamatory sentences express surprise, alarm, indignation, or a strong opinion. - You can’t be serious
Bina Nusantara University 12 Sentence Types According to the existence of verb, sentences can be classified as: 1.Major sentences : contain finite verbs 2.Minor sentences : do not contain finite verbs Minor sentences occur in: a. Colloquial speech: ‘Got a match?” b. Proverbial utterances :’out of sight, out of mind’ c. Advertising : Nokia, connecting people
Bina Nusantara University 13 Sentence Types According to the number of verbs, sentences can be classified as: 1.Simple sentences contain only one finite verb -Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade Compound sentences consist of two or more simple sentences liked by coordinating conjunctions and, but, so, or, either..or, neither..nor, or..then. - He could neither eat nor sleep 3. Complex sentences consists of one simple sentence and one or more subordinate clauses. - She become queen when her father died because she was the eldest child. 4.Compound Complex sentences are a combination of complex sentences joined by coordinating conjunction. - I saw him when he arrived the first time but I didn’t see him when he came again.
Bina Nusantara University 14 Internal structure of a sentence The basic pattern of the simple English sentence is: Adjunct – Subject – Predicate – Object – Complement – Adjunct - John often called his brother a fool. S A P O C - The tall man saw him last Friday S P O A
Bina Nusantara University 15 Sentence operation Insertion : ‘the child is clever’ the little child is exceptionally clever. Deletion : The tall man saw him last Friday The man saw him Substitution : The young man visited his mother he visited her Transposition : I saw three men three men I saw