2 Sentences in General Follow along on Text page 422. A complete sentence contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Anything short of this is a fragment.Example: The dog (subject) runs (verb).Example: The dog. (No verb)Example: Am running. (No subject)Example: Since you have been gone. (Not a complete thought)We will complete a PDF Exercise together.
3 Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates Follow along on Text page 422.The complete subject is made up of the main noun in the sentence and all of the words that tell about it. Likewise, the complete predicate is made up of the main verb in the sentence that tells what the subject is or does and all of the words that tell about the verb.Example: The gigantic dog, tail wagging, (complete subject) greeted its owner enthusiastically (complete predicate).While the main noun is dog and the main verb is greeted, the complete subject and complete predicate clarify the meaning of the main noun and main verb.We will complete Exercise 1 in the textbook together.
4 Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates The simple subject is the main noun or pronoun in the complete subject, and the simple predicate is the main verb or verb phrase that expresses action or being about the subject.Example: The dude (simple subject) abides (simple predicate).One should always begin my crossing out all prepositional phrases, since neither the simple subject nor the simple predicate can be part of a prepositional phrase.One should then always identify the simple predicate first by asking, “What is happening in this sentence?”One should then identify the simple subject by asking, “Who or what did that or is that?”One should then check whether it is simply a verb or a verb phrase by looking to the left of the main verb and asking, “Are there any helping verbs between the main verb and the subject?”We will work together on Exercise 2 in the text.Prepare for a quiz concerning simple and complete subjects and predicates.
5 Compound Subjects Follow along on Text page 424. A compound subject is formed by two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and share the same verb.Example: The dog and cat play.The compound subject is dog, cat.When asked to identify the simple subject, remember to never include the conjunction in your answer. The conjunction joins the subjects together, but is not part of the subject.We will work together on Exercise 3.
6 Compound PredicatesA compound predicate is formed by two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject.Example: The dog runs, jumps, and eats.The compound predicate is runs, jumps, eats.A sentence can have both a compound subject and a compound predicate.Example: The cat and dog run and jump.We will work together on Exercise 4.
7 Understood Subjects Follow along on Textbook page 428. In a request or command, the subject of the sentence is not stated. In any imperative sentence, the subject is always “you.”Example: Pick up the baby.The verb is pick. Who picks? You do.This is true even if a noun of direct address is included in the request or command. This noun will be a person’s name which indicates who is being told to follow the command. This is NOT the subject. The subject is still “you.”Example: John, drop the baby.The verb is drop. The noun of direct address is John. In the framework of the command, though, the subject is still you, since the command to drop the baby is addressed directly to John.We will work together on Exercise 12 in the textbook.
8 Interrogative Subjects In sentences that ask questions, the safest way to find the subject is to first rearrange the question into a statement.Example 1: Did the doctor refuse the patient admittance?Rearranged: The doctor did refuse the patient admittance.This is not the same thing as answering the question. Use all of the words that are there; change nothing, remove nothing, add nothing. The rearranged sentence does not have to make sense; just use it.Example 2: How is this going to work?Rearranged: This is going to work how.Once this is done, you simply find the verb, ask “who” or “what,” did that or is that, and move along.Example 1 Subject: Doctor; Verb: Did RefuseExample 2 Subject: This; Verb: Is GoingTypically, the subject in a sentence that asks a question tends to follow the verb or split the helping verb from the main verb, as in the sentences above.We will complete a PDF Exercise together.
9 Subjects in Sentences Beginning with “Here” or “There” Follow along on Text pagesThe subject always follows the verb in sentences that begin with “there” or “here.”Example: Here is your allowance.The verb is “is.” What is? Your allowance is. The subject of the sentence is “allowance.”Notice, both “here” and “there” are location words, so they are both adverbs. Adverbs can never be simple subjects.Sometimes, “there” is used as an expletive to get a sentence going, but is not an adverb. This does not matter much. Just remember that “here” and “there” are never the subjects of sentences.Example: There were many people talking outside.The verb is “were.” Who were? People were. The subject of the sentence is “people.”We will complete a PDF Exercise together.
10 Other Inverted Sentences Follow along on Textbook pagesIt can sometimes be annoying to find the subject of a sentence, especially if the subject is for some reason placed after the predicate. The best way to solve this problem is to first eliminate prepositional phrases, then locate the verb, and finally ask what or whom the verb’s action refers to.Example: Down went the plane.The verb is “went.” What went? The plane did. The subject of the sentence is “plane.”Sentences like the preceding one are inverted for effect in order to emphasize the subjects.We will work together on Exercise 13.Prepare for a quiz concerning weird subjects and predicates.
11 Direct Objects You can follow along on textbook pages 434-435. A complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning of the subject-verb combination. Action verb sentences can have three kinds of complements: direct objects, indirect objects, and objective complements.A direct object is a type of complement that follows a transitive action verb and receives its action. It answers the question “What?” or “Whom?” after an action verb. A direct object is never part of a prepositional phrase.Example: I bought a roll of toilet paper.The action verb is bought. What or whom was bought? A roll. The direct object is roll. The prepositional phrase “of toilet paper” further clarifies the meaning of the direct object “roll,” but is not the direct object, itself.Most action verbs can be transitive or intransitive in different contexts, so you must always ask yourself “whom” or “what” after the verb to see if it has a direct object.Example 1: John walked the dog.Example 2: John walked outside.Although the verb is the same in the two sentences, the first has a direct object while the second does not.
12 The Steps Eliminate prepositional phrases. Find the main verb. Find the subject.Find look for any helping verbs.Decide if the verb is action or linking.If it is an action verb, look for direct objects.We will work together on Exercise 20.
13 Direct Objects vs. Objects of Prepositions Follow along on Textbook page 436.Remember, eliminate prepositional phrases first; this will help you to remember that direct objects are never objects of prepositions.Example: He rented the basement of the house on the corner.The direct object is basement, not house or corner.We will work together on Exercise 21.
14 Indirect Objects Follow along on Textbook page 437. An indirect object precedes a direct object after an action verb and answers to or for what or whom the action is done. Again, indirect objects cannot be parts of prepositional phrases.Example: I gave John a huge piece of cheese.The action verb is gave. Gave what? A piece of cheese. Piece is the direct object. I gave to whom? To John. John is the indirect object.Note that a sentence cannot have an indirect object unless it has a direct object.Both direct and indirect objects can be compound.Example: Sal saved John and Alice money and time.Thus, in action verb sentences, STEP 7 is to look for indirect objects.We will work together on Exercise 22 in the textbook.
15 Indirect Objects vs. Objects of Prepositions Follow along on Textbook page 438.Again, it is very important to remove prepositional phrases before attempting to find direct and indirect objects.Example: The king of the castle had bought the prince and princess of his neighboring country thirteen cases of fine wine.There are many prepositional phrases. Cross them all out before figuring out the rest.We will work together on Exercise 24.Prepare for a quiz concerning direct and indirect objects.
16 Predicate Nominatives In linking verb sentences, you should not look for any direct and indirect objects. Instead, you should look for subject complements, which are nouns, pronouns, or adjectives that tell something about the subject.Example: John is a man.Example: John is the one who showed up.Example: John is terrible.A predicate nominative is a subject complement that is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and identifies or renames the subject of the sentence.Example: John is the point guard of the team.The verb “is,” a form of “to be,” is a linking verb. Thus, the subject complement “point guard” identifies or renames the subject, John. Since “point guard” is a noun, it is a predicate nominative.The linking verb therefore acts as an equal sign ( = ) between the subject and the predicate nominative.We will work together on Exercise 25 on Textbook page 440.
17 Predicate AdjectivesA predicate adjective is a subject complement that is an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of the sentence.Example: John is talented.Again, the verb “is” indicates the presence of a subject complement, in this case the adjective “talented.” “Talented” is a predicate adjective.As is the case with direct objects, rearranging questions into statements and inserting the understood subject “you” at the beginning of commands will allow you to discover the subject complements in any sentences containing linking verbs. Please note that subject complements may also be compound.Example: Be careful.The understood subject is “you.” The command asks you to be careful. Careful is a predicate adjective.Example: Are they baseball players and college students?When rearranged, the sentence reads “They are baseball players and college students.” The compound predicate nominative is players and students.We will work together on Exercise 26.
18 The Steps Eliminate prepositional phrases. Find the main verb. Find the subject.Find look for any helping verbs.Decide if the verb is action or linking.If action…6. Look for direct objects.7. Look for indirect objects.If linking…6. Look for subject complements.7. Decide if the complements are predicate nominatives or predicate adjectives.
19 Objective Complements Follow along on Textbook page 441.An objective complement is a noun, pronoun or adjective that follows a direct object in a sentence and completes the meaning of the direct object.Example: John calls the class ridiculous.The action verb is “calls.” Calls what or whom? The class. What does John call the class? Ridiculous, an adjective. The objective complement is ridiculous.We will work together on Exercise 27.
20 The Steps Final Eliminate prepositional phrases. Find the main verb. Find the subject.Find look for any helping verbs.Decide if the verb is action or linking.If action…6. Look for direct objects.7. Look for indirect objects.8. Look for objective complements.If linking…6. Look for subject complements.7. Decide if the complements are predicate nominatives or predicate adjectives.Prepare for a quiz concerning subject and objective complements.
21 Standardized Test Sentence Work Follow along on Textbook pagesStandardized tests will often ask that you be able to recognize and correct sentence fragments, run-on sentences, and unnecessary clauses. Do this by being as concise as possible while keeping all necessary information.Example: The man in the park. He got shot. Running away from cops.The man in the park got shot while running away from the cops.We will work together on Practice 1 and Practice 2.
22 Review and TestAfter our review, we’ve got a test coming up on the sentence stuff. Prepare well.