Presentation on theme: "Adverb Clauses* *Or: Forty-five sentences about llamas!!"— Presentation transcript:
1Adverb Clauses**Or: Forty-five sentences about llamas!!
2Adverb ClauseThe adverb clause works in exactly the same way a one-word adverb works:It provides information by modifying a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.The most common types of adverb clauses modify verbs.
3The llama left the house early. The llama left the house late. The adverb clause works in the same way that the one-word adverbs work in the following sentences:The llama left the house early.The llama left the house late.The llama left the house yesterday.The llama left the house after the rain stopped.
4“Rain began to fall, and we stopped our ball game” is a perfectly correct, if boring and imprecise, sentence.But notice these slightly altered versions of that sentence:When rain began to fall, we stopped our llama game.After rain began to fall, we stopped our llama game.Because rain began to fall, we stopped our llama game.
5Fancy NamesThe words that set off adverb clauses are called SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS or ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONSWhy?:They make a clause dependant, or subordinate, therefore they are subordinatingThey connect two portions of a sentence, thus they are conjunctions
6Using adverb clauses can refine your writing, making your meaning more precise Our readers now interpret the sentence exactly as we want them to because we used an Adverb Clause.
7What are they? Adverb Clauses are DEPENDANT CLAUSES They help form complex, or compound-complex sentencesWhile he was away, the llama ate a hotdog
8Adverb Clauses answer direct questions about the action: When? (time) Where? (place)Why? (cause)How? (manner)They also compare and concede (both are forms of How).
9The dependent clause “after the rain stopped” establishes the time of the event. It answers the “When?” question: When did we leave the house?We left the llama house after the rain stopped.The clause provides “when” information about the verb, left. Therefore, it modifies a VERB, and is an adverb clause.
10There are several types of adverb clauses There are several types of adverb clauses. Each type answers a different question in a sentence, and each type (with its questions) is associated with different adverbial conjunctions.
11Time (answers “When?”): when, whenever, before, after, since, while, until, as, as soon asThe llama cried when the rooster crowed.The llama ran out before Lou could shut the door.After the bell rings, no llamas can enter.I’ve known that llama since he was a baby.You should not whisper while the llama is sleeping.You may leave as soon as your replacement llama arrives.
12Place (answers “Where?”): where, whereverThe llamas parted where the paths separated.I shall meet the llama wherever it wants me to.
13Cause (answers “Why?”): because, since, as I walked the llama every day because I need the exercise.Since she could not pay the llama, she could not ride the llama.As you are the senior llama, you should lead the procession.
14Purpose (Answers “Why?”) so that, in order that:We left early so that we could catch the last llama train.They died so that their llama nation might live.They came to America in order that they might find freedom for all llamas.
15Manner (answers “How?”) as, as if, as thoughRaphael acted as if the llama party bored him.Please do the work as Senor llama has instructed you.
16Result (answers “How?”) so…that, such…thatLlama Derek arrived so late that he missed the concert.The workmen made such a racket that it woke the llamas.
17Conditionif, unless, provided that, on condition thatThis kind of adverb clause gives a condition under which the main clause is true:Hey Mr. Llama, sit down and chat if you are not in a hurry.He will not give his talk unless we pay his llama.She will sign the contract provided that we buy her a llama.If I were you, I would accept the offer and the llama.If you had told me earlier, I could have helped that llama.
18Concessionalthough, though, even if, even though, since, despite, in spite ofThis clause states a fact in spite of which the main idea is true:Our llama is dependable even though it is old.Although he is a llama, he is awesome.
19Comparisonthan, asCaveat: sometimes, part or all of the verb, although it is needed grammatically, is not expressed.That llama is heavier than this one [is].Your llama is not as new as mine [is].Her llama was better than any other student’s in the class [was].Elaina earned more bonus llamas than her brother [did].
20Adverb clauses may also modify adjectives, and adverbs. We are sorry that you must leave early. [Modifies the adjective sorry]I am sure that he meant no harm. [Modifies the adjective sure]My llama is spitting better than it did last week. [Modifies the adverb better]
21Location In SentencesAlthough some adverb clauses--those of comparison, for instance--have a fixed position within the sentence, many adverb clauses may be placed at the beginning, middle, or end the sentence:When they deal with the unknown, llamas are usually somber.Llamas, when they deal with the unknown, are usually somber.
22Llamas are usually somber when they deal with the unknown. Notice that no comma is used in the third example above. Usually a comma is not needed when the adverbial clause is the final element of the sentence.
23Summary of Adverb Clauses Function: to modify a verb, adjective, or adverb.They answer the Questions:When? (time)Where? (place)Why? (reason and cause)How? (manner/to what extent)- conditions- comparisons- concessionsPosition: fixed for some types (comparisons: She sold more tickets than I did); others may be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the main sentence.
243. Signal Words: subordinating conjunctions, most of which show adverbial relationships such as time (when, since, while), cause (because, as), and so on.
25Journal:Create five sentences which employ adverb clauses. For each sentence, underline the clause and draw an arrow to the word it is modifying. Then state the question the clause is answeringEX: Bobby likes to work in the barn because the llama is so cuddly. (answers WHY)
26(mostly) Master Listwhen, whenever, before, after, since, while, until, as, as soon aswhere, whereverbecause, since, asso that, in order thatas, as if, as thoughso…that, such…thatif, unless, provided that, on condition thatalthough, though, even if, even though, since, despite, in spite ofthan, as