Presentation on theme: "*Or: Forty-five sentences about llamas!!. Adverb Clause The adverb clause works in exactly the same way a one-word adverb works: It provides information."— Presentation transcript:
Adverb Clause The adverb clause works in exactly the same way a one-word adverb works: It provides information by modifying a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. The most common types of adverb clauses modify verbs.
The adverb clause works in the same way that the one-word adverbs work in the following sentences: The llama left the house early. The llama left the house late. The llama left the house yesterday. The llama left the house after the rain stopped.
“Rain began to fall, and we stopped our ball game” is a perfectly correct, if boring and imprecise, sentence. But notice these slightly altered versions of that sentence: 1. When rain began to fall, we stopped our llama game. 2. After rain began to fall, we stopped our llama game. 3. Because rain began to fall, we stopped our llama game.
Fancy Names The words that set off adverb clauses are called SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS or ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONS Why?: –They make a clause dependant, or subordinate, therefore they are subordinating –They connect two portions of a sentence, thus they are conjunctions
Using adverb clauses can refine your writing, making your meaning more precise Our readers now interpret the sentence exactly as we want them to because we used an Adverb Clause.
What are they? Adverb Clauses are DEPENDANT CLAUSES DEPENDANT CLAUSES They help form complex, or compound-complex sentences While he was away, the llama ate a hotdog
Adverb Clauses answer direct questions about the action: When? (time) Where? (place) Why? (cause) How? (manner) –They also compare and concede (both are forms of How).
The dependent clause “after the rain stopped” establishes the time of the event. It answers the “When?” question: When did we leave the house? We left the llama house after the rain stopped. The clause provides “when” information about the verb, left. Therefore, it modifies a VERB, and is an adverb clause.
There are several types of adverb clauses. Each type answers a different question in a sentence, and each type (with its questions) is associated with different adverbial conjunctions.
Time (answers “When?”): when, whenever, before, after, since, while, until, as, as soon as The llama cried when the rooster crowed. The llama ran out before Lou could shut the door. After the bell rings, no llamas can enter. I’ve known that llama since he was a baby. You should not whisper while the llama is sleeping. You may leave as soon as your replacement llama arrives.
Place (answers “Where?”): where, wherever The llamas parted where the paths separated. I shall meet the llama wherever it wants me to.
Cause (answers “Why?”): because, since, as I walked the llama every day because I need the exercise. Since she could not pay the llama, she could not ride the llama. As you are the senior llama, you should lead the procession.
Purpose (Answers “Why?”) so that, in order that: We left early so that we could catch the last llama train. They died so that their llama nation might live. They came to America in order that they might find freedom for all llamas.
Manner (answers “How?”) as, as if, as though Raphael acted as if the llama party bored him. Please do the work as Senor llama has instructed you.
Result (answers “How?”) so…that, such…that Llama Derek arrived so late that he missed the concert. Llama Derek arrived so late that he missed the concert. The workmen made such a racket that it woke the llamas.
Condition if, unless, provided that, on condition that This kind of adverb clause gives a condition under which the main clause is true: Hey Mr. Llama, sit down and chat if you are not in a hurry. He will not give his talk unless we pay his llama. She will sign the contract provided that we buy her a llama. If I were you, I would accept the offer and the llama. If you had told me earlier, I could have helped that llama.
Concession although, though, even if, even though, since, despite, in spite of This clause states a fact in spite of which the main idea is true: Our llama is dependable even though it is old. Although he is a llama, he is awesome. Although he is a llama, he is awesome.
Comparison than, as Caveat: sometimes, part or all of the verb, although it is needed grammatically, is not expressed. That llama is heavier than this one [is]. Your llama is not as new as mine [is]. Her llama was better than any other student’s in the class [was]. Elaina earned more bonus llamas than her brother [did].
Adverb clauses may also modify adjectives, and adverbs. We are sorry that you must leave early. [Modifies the adjective sorry] I am sure that he meant no harm. [Modifies the adjective sure] My llama is spitting better than it did last week. [Modifies the adverb better]
Location In Sentences Although some adverb clauses--those of comparison, for instance--have a fixed position within the sentence, many adverb clauses may be placed at the beginning, middle, or end the sentence: When they deal with the unknown, llamas are usually somber. Llamas, when they deal with the unknown, are usually somber.
Llamas are usually somber when they deal with the unknown. Notice that no comma is used in the third example above. Usually a comma is not needed when the adverbial clause is the final element of the sentence.
Summary of Adverb Clauses 1. Function: to modify a verb, adjective, or adverb. They answer the Questions: They answer the Questions: When? (time) Where? (place) Why? (reason and cause) How? (manner/to what extent) - conditions - comparisons - concessions 2. Position: fixed for some types (comparisons: She sold more tickets than I did); others may be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the main sentence.
3. Signal Words: subordinating conjunctions, most of which show adverbial relationships such as time (when, since, while), cause (because, as), and so on.
Journal: Create five sentences which employ adverb clauses. For each sentence, underline the clause and draw an arrow to the word it is modifying. Then state the question the clause is answering EX: Bobby likes to work in the barn because the llama is so cuddly. (answers WHY)
(mostly) Master List when, whenever, before, after, since, while, until, as, as soon as where, wherever because, since, as so that, in order that as, as if, as though so…that, such…that if, unless, provided that, on condition that although, though, even if, even though, since, despite, in spite of than, as